CERTIORARI TO THE CIRCUIT COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE SECOND CIRCUIT.
MR. JUSTICE McKENNA, after making the foregoing statement, delivered the opinion of the court.
The motion for preliminary injunction was made upon affidavits. Those of respondent (complainant in the Circuit Court) described the invention and the machine made in accordance therewith, averred the practical identity of petitioner's machine therewith, and set forth the record in the case of The Victor Machine Co. and The United States Gramophone Co. v. The American Graphophone Co., instituted in the Circuit Court for the Southern District of New York. The affidavits averred that the suit was pending and awaiting decision when this suit was brought, and was subsequently decided; that by the decision, claims 5 and 35 of the patent in suit were held valid and infringed by the talking machine of the defendants, and that an injunction was ordered. 140 Fed. Rep. 800. And it was stated that the Circuit Court of Appeals, though not concurring with the Circuit Court in all of its reasoning, affirmed the decree.
The affidavits of petitioner (the defendant in the courts below) set forth the defenses which were made in the case just referred to, a summary of the proofs introduced to sustain the defense, and submitted new matter. The affidavits also contained a description of the patent in suit and what was considered to be its basic invention, averred its identity with certain foreign patents which were not in evidence in the other suit. The affidavits also undertook to meet and refute the charge of infringement. The affidavits were very long and circumstantial, and had attached to them copies of the foreign and domestic patents relied on, translations of foreign laws, copies of publications and certain testimony. Such parts of these exhibits as we deem relevant will be referred to hereafter.
Upon this body of proof, formidable even in its quantity, and having no other elucidation than the arguments of counsel and
some mechanical exhibits, presenting grave questions of fact, we are asked by petitioner to go beyond the action of the lower courts, and not only reverse them as to a preliminary injunction but decide the case. If we should yield to this invocation and attempt a final decision it would be difficult to say whether it would be more unjust to petitioner or to respondent.
The Circuit Court felt a like embarrassment, as will be observed from its opinion. The court did not pass on the defense of infringement, and said that, except as to one patent, the petitioner had failed to introduce any new matter which would have led the courts in the other case, if such matter had been before them, to have reached a different conclusion. And, speaking of the patents referred to, the Circuit Judge said: "But even if I am mistaken in this view, and if the expiration of the Suess Canadian patent is a complete defense, or if a decision of the questions raised as to the character and scope of the various patents now introduced for the first time should be postponed until final hearing, yet I am constrained to grant the injunction in order to permit an appeal and a determination of the questions at the earliest possible moment."
And the lower courts also reserved to the merits the consideration of the defense that claims 5 and 35 were invalid because they were the functions of machines, resting those defenses, so far as the preliminary injunction was concerned, upon the adjudication in the prior suit. We shall do the same, remarking, however, that the contention, if it has any strength as to claim 5, seems to us untenable as to claim 35. We think the latter is a valid combination, consisting of the elements, (1) a traveling tablet having a sound record formed thereon; (2) a reproducing stylus, shaped for engagement with the record, and free to be vibrated and propelled by it. It is, therefore, a true mechanical device, producing by the cooperation of its constituents the result specified and in the manner specified.
In passing on the other foreign patents the Circuit Court considered that the prior adjudications fortified the presumption of the validity of the patent in suit, and established its scope,
and that the new matter introduced by petitioner did not repel the presumption or limit the extent of the patent. That the lower courts properly regarded the prior adjudications as a ground of preliminary injunction is established by the cases cited in Walker on Patents, § 665 et seq. See also Robinson on Patents, § 117 et seq. And in that aspect the question must be considered, and so considering it we may pass the defenses of anticipation, whether complete or partial, and the defense of infringement. These are, we have already said, questions of fact which we are not inclined to pass upon unaided by the judgments of the lower courts made after a hearing on the merits.
The patent in suit and the patents which, it is contended, anticipate it or limit its extent or duration are for methods or devices whereby sound undulations trace or inscribe themselves upon a solid material, and are by suitable devices made to reproduce themselves and the sounds which made them. One of the questions in the case is, as we have seen, the relation of the patent in suit to the prior art. It is contended by the respondent that Berliner (he was the patentee of the patent in suit), improved the prior art, not only in the methods of recording and reproducing sounds, but in the devices by which the methods are accomplished.
In the old method the sound record was produced by vertical vibrations, either indenting a pliable material, by and in accordance with the sound waves along a helical or spiral line, as in the Edison patents, or by like vibrations engraving a suitable material, by and in accordance with the sound waves, as in the Bell and Tainter patent. By both of these methods there was produced a record consisting of a groove of varying depth, that is, containing elevations and depressions corresponding to the sound waves which produced them. In the Berliner patents the vibrations are made to inscribe a laterally undulating line in the general direction of a spiral. The line, therefore, is of even depth, the inequalities or sinuosities produced by the sound waves being upon its sides. By this method there is produced
a sound record tablet, consisting of a flat disc of hard resisting material, having in its surface inscribed a spiral groove of practically even depth, but undulating laterally in accordance with the sound waves. The patent in suit describes and specifies the ways of making such record tablet, as do the prior patents the sound records of the respective patentees. Further description of the records, however, is not necessary, as we shall have with them but incidental concern.
The records being made, the next step is the reproduction of the sounds which they record. This is done by adjusting to the line or groove inscribed upon the records a point or stylus attached to a diaphragm, which, being vibrated by the indentations or sinuosities of the groove, reproduces the sounds that made them. In the prior art the reproducing stylus and sound record were brought in operating relation to each other in two ways. The sound record was mechanically conveyed across the reproducing stylus, or the reproducer and its stylus were mechanically conveyed across the record. By one or the other of these means the stylus was kept in engagement with the record and accommodated to the shifting positions of its operative portions. In the patent in suit such independent means are dispensed with. The stylus is made to engage with the grooves in the record tablet, is vibrated laterally by its undulations, and guided or propelled at the same time with its diaphragm attachment across the face of the tablet, the successive portions of the groove reproducing the sound waves, which are transmitted to the air. The sound records are made of hard, indestructible material and, as stated in one of respondent's affidavits, the groove impressed therein "serves the twofold purpose of vibrating the stylus and producing the necessary vibrations in the diaphragm of the sound box, and also ...