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MCINTYRE v. KAVANAUGH

December 4, 1916

MCINTYRE
v.
KAVANAUGH



ERROR TO THE SUPREME COURT OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK

White, McKenna, Holmes, Day, Van Devanter, Pitney, McReynolds, Brandeis, Clarke

Author: Mcreynolds

[ 242 U.S. Page 138]

 MR. JUSTICE McREYNOLDS delivered the opinion of the court.

Plaintiff in error was a member of T.A. McIntyre and Company, engaged in business as brokers. During February, 1908, the partnership received certain stock certificates owned by defendant in error and undertook to hold them as security for his indebtedness amounting to less than one-sixth of their market value. Within a few weeks, without authority and without his knowledge, they sold the stocks and appropriated the avails to their

[ 242 U.S. Page 139]

     own use. Shortly thereafter both firm and its members were adjudged bankrupts. After his discharge in bankruptcy this suit was instituted against plaintiff in error seeking damages for the wrongful conversion. He set up his discharge and also personal ignorance of and non-participation in any tortious act.

The trial court held the liability was for wilful and malicious injury to property and expressly excluded from release by § 17 (2), Bankruptcy Act, as amended in 1903; and that the several partners were liable. A judgment for damages was affirmed by Appellate Division, 128 App. Div. 722, and Court of Appeals, 210 N.Y. 175.

That partners are individually responsible for torts by a firm when acting within the general scope of its business whether they personally participate therein or not we regard as entirely clear. Castle v. Bullard, 23 How. 172; Matter of Peck, 206 N.Y. 55. If under the circumstances here presented the firm inflicted a wilful and malicious injury to property, of course, plaintiff in error incurred liability for that character of wrong.

As originally enacted, § 17 of the Bankruptcy Act provided:

"A discharge in bankruptcy shall release a bankrupt from all his provable debts, except such as . . . (2) are judgments in actions for frauds, or obtaining property by false pretenses or false representations, or for willful and malicious injuries to the person or property of another; . . . (4) were created by his fraud, embezzlement, misappropriation, or defalcation while acting as an officer or in any fiduciary capacity."

This was amended by Act February 5, 1903, so as to read:

"A discharge in bankruptcy shall release a bankrupt from all his provable debts, except such as . . . (2) are liabilities for obtaining property by false pretenses or false ...


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