Hughes, Van Devanter, McReynolds, Brandeis, Sutherland, Butler, Stone, Roberts, Cardozo
MR. JUSTICE VAN DEVANTER delivered the opinion of the Court.
By this suit the State of Wyoming complains of the State of Colorado and asserts that the latter and her water claimants have been and are departing from a decree rendered by this Court in an earlier suit between these States (259 U.S. 419, 496; 260 U.S. 1), and that the asserted departures have been and are working material injury to Wyoming and her water claimants. The principal relief sought is an injunction enforcing adherence to that decree.
The earlier suit and decree dealt with the relative rights of the two States and their respective water claimants to divert and use for irrigation the waters of the Laramie River, an innavigable stream which has its source in the mountains of northern Colorado, flows northerly 27 miles in that State, crosses into Wyoming, and there flows northeasterly 150 miles to the North Platte River, of which it is an affluent. That suit was largely provoked by a proposed and threatened diversion in Colorado (called the Laramie-Poudre Tunnel Project) of 50,000 acre feet or more from the Laramie River, which Wyoming alleged would not leave in the river sufficient water to satisfy older appropriations in that State.
Shortly after the present suit was begun the complainant's right to relief was challenged by a motion to dismiss, one ground of which was that the suit proceeds on the erroneous assumption that the earlier decree determined, as against Colorado and her water claimants, the full quantity of water which rightly may be diverted
within that State from the stream, and likewise the quantity which Wyoming and her water claimants are entitled to receive and use within her borders. The motion was overruled (286 U.S. 494), the scope of the ruling and the reasons for it being shown in the following excerpts from the opinion then delivered.
"We are of opinion that the record, opinion and decree in the prior suit, here reviewed at length, show very plainly that the decree must be taken as determining the relative rights of the two States, including their respective citizens, to divert and use the waters of the Laramie and its tributaries. These rights were put in issue by the pleadings, displayed in the evidence, and considered and resolved in the opinion. Not only so, but the question of priority in time and right as between the appropriations in Colorado and those in Wyoming was directly presented by the pleadings and evidence and distinctly dealt with and resolved in the opinion.
"As appears from the opinion, the Court held that the doctrine, long recognized and enforced in both States, whereby priority of appropriation gives superiority of right, furnished the only equitable and right basis on which to determine the controversy between them shown in the pleadings and evidence.
"And as further appears from the opinion, the Court made specific findings showing the amount of water in the available supply, its insufficiency to satisfy all asserted appropriations, the date when the proposed tunnel appropriation in Colorado was initiated, the names and amounts of the appropriations in Colorado which were senior to that appropriation, the amount of water included in the Wyoming appropriations which were senior to it, and the amount which would remain in the supply and be subject to that appropriation after deducting what was required to satisfy the senior appropriations in both States.
"These findings were pertinent to the issues, and upon them the Court pronounced its decree. Under a familiar rule the facts thus determined are not open to dispute in a subsequent suit between the same States."
"Construing the decree in the light of the record and opinion, to which counsel for both States appeal, we think it was intended to and does define and limit the quantity of water which Colorado and her appropriators may divert from the interstate stream and its tributaries and thus withhold from Wyoming and her appropriators.
"But it is said that water claims other than the tunnel appropriation could not be, and were not, affected by the decree, because the claimants were not parties to the suit or represented therein. In this the nature of the suit is misconceived. It was one between States, each acting as a quasi-sovereign and representative of the interests and rights of her people in a controversy with the other . . . the water claimants in Colorado, and those in Wyoming, were represented by their respective States and are bound by the decree."
The earlier decree, so construed, confirms and establishes "the right of the State of Colorado, or of any one recognized by her as duly entitled ...