CERTIORARI TO THE CIRCUIT COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE NINTH CIRCUIT.
Hughes, McReynolds, Stone, Roberts, Black, Reed, Frankfurter, Douglas, Murphy
MR. JUSTICE ROBERTS delivered the opinion of the Court.
We granted certiorari in this case for the reason that it presents important questions with respect to the procedure required by § 75 (s) of the Bankruptcy Act, as amended.*fn1
The precise matter in controversy is whether the bankruptcy court may permit foreclosure of mortgage liens where the procedure prescribed by § 75 (s) has not been followed.
The petitioners, husband and wife, are farmers. Over the period January 24, 1927 to June 19, 1933, they borrowed from the respondent, the California Bank, a total of $87,566.93, in varying amounts, executing to the bank their promissory notes for the respective loans together with deeds of trust*fn2 on their farm real estate as security. From time to time they made payments which reduced the principal of the indebtedness to $53,919.20. The lender, in the meantime, had made some advances towards the payment of taxes on the property. Further to secure their indebtedness they executed, on January 30, 1934, a mortgage on all the crops standing or growing, or
which should thereafter be planted, grown, cultivated, cut, gathered, packed, or harvested, during the life of the mortgage on certain of their farm real estate.
November 17, 1934, they filed their petition under § 75 of the Bankruptcy Act, which was approved and referred to a Conciliation Commissioner. In January 1935 the respondent bank declared defaults, and recorded notices thereof and of its election to cause the property to be sold pursuant to the deeds of trust, and the law of California.
March 25, 1935, the Conciliation Commissioner appointed appraisers who filed an appraisal on May 1 valuing the debtors' real estate at $68,550. It is to be noted that § 75 contains no provision for appraisal during the course of the conciliation proceedings covered by subsections (a) to (r); nor do we find any rule of the District Court providing for appraisal at this stage of the cause. The transcript of record does not disclose whether this appraisal was asked by any creditor or by the debtors. So far as appears, the order for the appointment of appraisers was made by the Conciliation Commissioner of his own motion.
The debtors were unable to obtain the requisite acceptance of creditors to the composition and extension proposal they submitted. As a consequence, they amended their petitions and prayed to be adjudicated bankrupts in accordance with the provisions of § 75 (s). The petition was granted and an adjudication entered May 6, 1935. Apparently no further proceedings were taken until June 26, 1935, when the bankruptcy cause was dismissed on the ground that this court had held § 75 (s) unconstitutional.*fn3 On the same day the debtors petitioned a local court for relief under a State moratorium act and obtained an order granting a moratorium, which
remained in effect until September 20, 1935, when the debtors filed a petition for reinstatement of the bankruptcy cause in accordance with the amendment of § 75 (s) adopted to meet the decision in the Radford case.*fn4 On the same date the District Court approved the petition, ordered the proceedings reinstated, and referred the case to a Conciliation Commissioner in accordance with the provisions of § 75 (s). The court restrained the respondents from selling, or proceeding with a sale of, the real estate covered by the deeds of trust ...