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Boutilier v. Immigration and Naturalization Service

decided: July 8, 1966.


Moore, Smith and Kaufman, Circuit Judges. Moore, Circuit Judge (dissenting).

Author: Kaufman

KAUFMAN, Circuit Judge:

Although a relatively young segment of contemporary society prides itself on its readiness to cast off conventional and tested disciplines and to experiment with nonconformance and the unorthodox merely to act out its contempt for traditional values, certain areas of conduct continue to be as controversial in modern and beau monde circles as they were in bygone and more staid eras. Homosexual behavior, despite Sigmund Freud*fn1 and other noted authors,*fn2 remains such a fervently debated issue that too often emotions on both sides obscure reason. But, the craft of judging requires a personal detachment -- as far as it is humanly possible -- so that issues which are apt to overwhelm the emotions may be approached in the dispassionate manner fitting for a judicial determination. See Learned Hand, "Fifty Years of Federal Judicial Service," published in Handbook for Judges (1961). Our function in this case, therefore, is not to approve or disapprove of the conduct we are examining; nor is it necessary for us to determine the mores of the community. Rather, our duty is simply to interpret a statute and to make the traditional determination as to its application.


Clive Michael Boutilier petitions for review of a final order of the Board of Immigration Appeals directing his deportation to Canada as one who upon entry into this country was a homosexual and, thus, was afflicted with a "psychopathic personality" within the meaning of section 212(a) (4) of the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1952 (Act), 8 U.S.C. (1964 ed.) § 1182(a) (4).*fn3 For the reasons set forth below, we uphold the order of the Board and dismiss the petition for review.

The basic facts, which were not seriously disputed, lend themselves to simple statement. Boutilier, a native and citizen of Canada, was admitted into the United States for permanent residence on June 22, 1955 at the age of 21. Since that time, with the exception of short trips outside the country, he has continuously resided here and has been gainfully employed as a building maintenance man, most recently by a large company in Manhattan. Boutilier's mother and stepfather also live in New York and three of his five brothers and sisters reside in the United States.

In September 1963, as part of Boutilier's application to file a petition for citizenship, he submitted an affidavit to a naturalization examiner forthrightly admitting that he had been arrested in October 1959 on a charge of sodomy, in violation of New York Penal Law, McKinney's Consol.Laws, c. 40, § 690. Boutilier noted that he had been discharged on his own recognizance and that the charge was reduced to simple assault and ultimately dismissed when the complaining party failed to appear in court. Boutilier freely acknowledged that the circumstances leading to the arrest involved acts of anal sodomy and fellatio with a minor -- a 17-year-old male.

This affidavit was forwarded to the Immigration Service and, in January 1964, an Immigration Officer informed Boutilier that the government desired additional information. Submitting another sworn statement, Boutilier revealed the full history of his sexual deviate behavior. He stated that his first homosexual experience occurred in Canada when he was approximately 14 years of age; the act was involuntary and Boutilier played a passive role. However, from the time he was 16 until he came to the United States 5 years later, Boutilier voluntarily engaged in homosexual activity on an average of 3 or 4 times a year.*fn4 These experiences all involved fellatio and Boutilier was generally the active participant. After Boutilier entered this country in 1955, his homosexual conduct continued with approximately the same frequency. Indeed, Boutilier shared an apartment with a male with whom he had sexual relations and, as the result of Boutilier's admitted homosexual condition and a Selective Service psychiatric examination, he was classified 4-F by the Selective Service System.

Immigration officials dispatched this second and more complete statement to the United States Public Health Service for its expert views as to whether there were grounds for concluding that Boutilier was excludable from the United States when he entered in 1955. After reviewing this document, the Public Health Service issued a certificate stating that, on the basis of the information furnished, it was of the opinion that Boutilier "was afflicted with a class A condition, namely, psychopathic personality, sexual deviate, at the time of his admission to the United States for permanent residence on June 22nd, 1955."*fn5

Armed with this certificate and the supporting documents, the government commenced deportation proceedings. At hearings held before a Special Inquiry Officer, Boutilier declined an opportunity for an in personam examination by Public Health Service doctors. He did, however, introduce two letters*fn6 from privately retained psychiatrists which were received in evidence without objection by the government.*fn7 In addition, it was substantially agreed between the parties that this additional material would not cause the Public Health Service to change its certification and, accordingly, no purpose would be served by calling a Public Health Service doctor to testify. Based on the evidence and stipulations, the Special Inquiry Officer concluded that Boutilier had been a homosexual at the time of entering the United States and, thus, was excludable as one afflicted with a "psychopathic personality." On this basis, the Special Inquiry Officer ordered Boutilier deported, noting that the phrase "psychopathic personality" as used in section 212(a) (4) of the Act is not a medical formulation but is a legal term of art evincing a Congressional purpose to exclude from this country any alien who is shown to be a homosexual. After an unsuccessful appeal to the Board of Immigration Appeals, Boutilier asks us to vacate the order of deportation.


Boutilier now urges that an actual medical examination by the Public Health Service was an indispensable prerequisite to its opinion that he was afflicted with a "psychopathic personality."*fn8 In support of this position, Boutilier relies on section 234 of the Act, 8 U.S.C. § 1224, which directs that certification of the physical and mental condition of "arriving aliens * * * shall be made by medical officers of the United States Public Health Service, who shall conduct all medical examinations and shall certify, for the information of the immigration officers and the special inquiry officers, any physical and mental defect or disease observed * * *." See also 42 C.F.R. § 34.1. Boutilier urges that if an exclusion proceeding is to be valid, adherence to these procedures is required. See United States ex rel. Johnson v. Shaughnessy, 336 U.S. 806, 69 S. Ct. 921, 93 L. Ed. 1054 (1949).

While this contention possesses surface plausibility, it is spurious and has a fatal flaw: it glosses over the basic and fundamental distinction between exclusion and deportation proceedings. Boutilier's ouster was directed because he was "excludable" in 1955 as one afflicted with a "psychopathic personality." But, this is not to say that the process by which his expulsion was ordered was an exclusion proceeding. On the contrary, section 241(a) of the Act, 8 U.S.C. (1964 ed.) § 1251(a), expressly provides that "any alien in the United States * * * shall * * * be deported who * * * at the time of entry was within one or more of the classes of aliens excludable by the law existing at the time of such entry * * *" (emphasis added).

Thus, section 234 and the cases and regulations which Boutilier cites are not in point; they describe requirements which are applicable solely to exclusion proceedings and have nothing to do with deportation procedures -- our main concern here and the path to be followed is laid down in section 242(b) of the Act, 8 U.S.C. § 1252(b). We note, in this connection, that Boutilier does not claim that the ...

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