The opinion of the court was delivered by: TYLER
Plaintiffs, Howard Katz and David Baumann, seek to have this court convene a three-judge district court pursuant to 28 U.S.C. §§ 2282, 2283. They contend that the Universal Military Training and Service Act of 1948, 50 U.S.C. App. §§ 451-473 (hereinafter referred to as "UMTSA") is unconstitutional and seek a declaratory judgment to that effect. Also, they have applied for injunctive relief against enforcement of UMTSA by the President, the Secretary of Defense and the Director of the Selective Service System.
To prevent the improvident granting of injunctions by a single judge against the enforcement of a federal enactment,
Congress has provided that an injunction, interlocutory or permanent, restraining the enforcement of a federal statute on the ground of unconstitutionality may be granted or denied only by a district court composed of three judges,
and that direct appeal lies to the Supreme Court from such a decision.
In hearing an application for convention of a statutory three-judge court, the power of a single district judge is limited to the threshold or jurisdictional inquiries of "whether the constitutional question raised is substantial, whether the complaint at least formally alleges a basis for equitable relief, and whether the case presented otherwise comes within the requirements of the three-judge statute." Idlewild Bon Voyage Liquor Corp. v. Epstein, 370 U.S. 713, 715, 82 S. Ct. 1294, 1296, 8 L. Ed. 2d 794 (1962); see also Ex parte Poresky, 290 U.S. 30, 54 S. Ct. 3, 78 L. Ed. 152 (1933); Bell v. Waterfront Commission, 279 F.2d 853 (2d Cir. 1960); Stuart v. Wilson, 282 F.2d 539 (5th Cir. 1960).
Despite allegations of federal jurisdiction based erroneously on other statutes in their complaint, plaintiffs in their briefs rest jurisdiction of their claims upon 28 U.S.C. § 1331, which confers upon the district courts jurisdiction of "all civil actions wherein the matter in controversy exceeds the sum or value of $10,000, exclusive of interest and costs, and arises under the Constitution, laws, or treaties of the United States." Since plaintiffs are directly attacking the constitutionality of an act of Congress, there is no doubt but that the controversy is one which arises under the Constitution and laws of the United States. Further, it will be assumed arguendo that the jurisdictional amount, $10,000, is sufficiently satisfied. See, generally, Glenwood Light and Water Company v. Mutual Light, Heat and Power Company, 239 U.S. 121, 125, 36 S. Ct. 30, 60 L. Ed. 174 (1915). The next inquiry in the context of jurisdictional requirements is whether plaintiffs have the requisite "standing" to press their claims. See Tileston v. Ullman, 318 U.S. 44, 63 S. Ct. 493, 87 L. Ed. 603 (1943). A party invoking the powers of a court to hold a statute unconstitutional must show not only that the statute is invalid but also that he has sustained or is immediately in danger of sustaining some direct injury as a result of its enforcement. Barrows v. Jackson, 346 U.S. 249, 73 S. Ct. 1031, 97 L. Ed. 1586 (1953), reh. den. 346 U.S. 841, 74 S. Ct. 19, 98 L. Ed. 361 (1953). Doremus v. Board of Education, 342 U.S. 429, 72 S. Ct. 394, 96 L. Ed. 475 (1952).
One of the plaintiffs, David Baumann, is presently on active duty in the United States Army and is stationed at the United States Army Training Center, Fort Sill, Oklahoma. On the date this action was commenced, February 21, 1966, Baumann was not in the armed forces. He was inducted a few days later on March 1, 1966. Consequently, Baumann is now subject to the jurisdiction and control of the United States Army. Because of Baumann's change in status from civilian to military, he presently must be considered a party who is challenging the right of the Army to retain him in custody. Accordingly, Baumann's remedy is by way of an application for a writ of habeas corpus. See Witmer v. United States, 348 U.S. 375, 75 S. Ct. 392, 99 L. Ed. 428 (1955); United States ex rel. Goodman v. Hearn, 153 F.2d 186 (5th Cir. 1946); see also Falbo v. United States, 320 U.S. 549, 64 S. Ct. 346, 88 L. Ed. 305 (1944); Billings v. Truesdell, 321 U.S. 542, 64 S. Ct. 737, 88 L. Ed. 917 (1944); United States ex rel. Albertson v. Truman, 103 F. Supp. 617 (D.C.D.C.1951). Since Baumann is within the jurisdiction of the military, the claims he makes in the complaint do not present a claim or controversy of which this court has jurisdiction. In other words, because of Baumann's change from civilian to military status, it can be said that, as to him, this action has abated or that he lacks requisite standing to prosecute this litigation.
The other plaintiff, Howard Katz, currently resides in New York City. On October 3, 1963, his local draft board ordered him to report for induction on October 18, 1963. Katz, however, enlisted in the Rhode Island National Guard on October 11, 1963 and accepted a service obligation for six years. As a result, his induction notice was cancelled, and Katz was reclassified as 1-D. He thereupon served a one year tour of active duty in the Army which expired on October 24, 1964. On April 18, 1966, he was released from the Rhode Island National Guard and transferred to the rolls of the United States Army Reserve, of which he is still a member. His service file rests with the Control Group (Annual Training) of the Army Administrative Center in St. Louis. Katz's military obligation will expire on October 10, 1969. His draft classification, of course, remains at 1-D.
Katz does not and cannot contend that he presently is being injured as a result of implementation of the UMTSA. His allegation is that if he is recalled to active duty, he will sustain pecuniary injury because of the nature of his business and because his life may be placed in jeopardy. At the present time, however, Katz has not been assigned to any reserve unit. Therefore, the likelihood of his being called to active duty is very remote.
Further, even if he were unexpectedly called to active duty, the law expressly requires that he be given a reasonable time to terminate his business and/or personal affairs before reporting for duty. See 10 U.S.C. § 672.
Since Katz has not shown that he has sustained or is immediately in danger of sustaining some direct injury as the result of the enforcement of the UMTSA, he has no standing to press his claim in the sense that he presents no clearly existing claim or controversy for adjudication by this court. See United Public Workers of America v. Mitchell, 330 U.S. 75, 67 S. Ct. 556, 91 L. Ed. 754 (1947); Cramp v. Board of Public Instruction, 368 U.S. 278, 82 S. Ct. 275, 7 L. Ed. 2d 285 (1961).
The inability of plaintiffs to show that they have standing to challenge the validity of the UMTSA is not the only reason why this court declines to convene a three-judge court. Plaintiffs have also failed to show that the constitutional question they allege is substantial.
It is said in the complaint that the UMTSA as a comprehensive statutory scheme violates plaintiffs' constitutional rights under the Ninth Amendment and the Eighth Article of the "Nuremberg Charter". In support of their theory, plaintiffs argue in their briefs that the constitutionality of the Act has never been challenged under either the Ninth Amendment or the "Nuremberg Charter"
In candor, the precise thrust of plaintiff's various assigned reasons of unconstitutionality is not entirely clear. Nevertheless, it is plain enough that their central contention boils down to the point that the power of conscription goes to the essence of the unconstitutionality of the UMTSA. They argue that military service entails for the individual a loss of his freedom to pursue his own vocation, a substantial restraint on his freedom of movement and a possible loss of his life. In other words, a law which provides that an individual can be involuntarily compelled to serve in the armed forces is necessarily unconstitutional because it deprives a person of all of the aforementioned rights.
Without attempting to examine the merits of this argument, I find that the power of Congress to provide for involuntary conscription has been upheld on numerous occasions. United States v. Nugent, 346 U.S. 1, 73 S. Ct. 991, 97 L. Ed. 1417 (1953); Etcheverry v. United States, 320 F.2d 873 (9th Cir. 1963); United States v. Miller, 233 F.2d 171 (2d Cir. 1956); United States v. Kime, 188 F.2d 677 (7th Cir. 1951); United States v. Henderson, 180 F.2d 711 (7th Cir. 1956). The Court in United States v. Nugent said, "the Selective Service Act is a comprehensive statute designed to provide an orderly, efficient and fair procedure to marshal the available manpower of the ...