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November 26, 1968

John KELLY et al., Plaintiffs, Ruby Sheafe et al., Plaintiffs, and Teresa Negron et al., Intervenor-Plaintiffs,
George K. WYMAN et al., Defendants

The opinion of the court was delivered by: FEINBERG

FEINBERG, Circuit Judge:

These consolidated actions present another in the increasing number of attacks on prevailing state welfare practices. *fn1" Plaintiffs claim that the procedures in New York State for termination of welfare benefits deny due process and violate both the Social Security Act and regulations of the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW). The eight plaintiffs (six in one action, two in the other) are New York City welfare recipients; their complaints sought the convening of a three-judge court and declaratory and injunctive relief under the Civil Rights Act, 42 U.S.C. § 1983, and the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 301 et seq. Defendants are the Commissioner of the New York State Department of Social Services, the State Board of Social Welfare and the Commissioner of the New York City Department of Social Services. In May 1968, over the objections of defendants, Judge Bryan convened a three-judge court pursuant to 28 U.S.C. §§ 2281, 284. 294 F. Supp. 887 (S.D.N.Y.1968). Thereafter, a briefing schedule was fixed and hearings were held in June and July on a number of motions. Because of the interest of the United States in the monies expended under New York State and City welfare programs and in the procedures set up to administer them, the court invited the United States to submit an amicus brief, which it did in early October 1968. For reasons hereafter indicated, we grant plaintiffs' motion for a preliminary injunction in part and deny it in part, and deny defendants' motion for summary judgment; the disposition of other motions is set forth in detail below.


 Welfare programs in the United States generally fall into two groups: general assistance and categorical assistance. *fn2" The former is financed only by state and local governments; the latter refers to programs supported by grants from the federal government under the Social Security Act to give aid to particular categories of individuals, e.g., aid to families with dependent children (AFDC). Four of the original plaintiffs in this action *fn3" were recipients of general assistance, home relief under the New York Social Welfare Law. The other four *fn4" were recipients of AFDC, which New York State administers in accordance with the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 601-609. Funds of the United States are involved only in the latter program.

 It is instructive on the state of administration of public welfare to review how both federal and New York State and City regulations have changed just since the institution of this consolidated action. At the time the complaints were filed, state regulations dealing with both home relief and AFDC programs apparently required no prior notice at all of suspension of benefits and no hearing prior to that action. However, a state hearing procedure, which is designated as a "fair hearing," had been instituted to provide an administrative remedy after suspension or termination of benefits; in the case of home relief, the procedure went into effect barely two weeks before the first complaint was filed in this case. After the action began, the State Department of Social Services amended its regulations, effective March 1, 1968, to provide notice and an "administrative hearing" before termination of public assistance. Thereafter, apparently because the New York City Department of Social Services felt that it could not feasibly comply with that regulation, it was repealed, and a new regulation was adopted. Under it, welfare departments may choose one of two options described below, both of which continue to provide notice and a type of hearing before cessation of benefits. Subsequent to the State amendments, HEW adopted a new criterion for the administration of state plans, effective July 1, 1968, which requires that the agency:


Gives advance notice of questions it has about an individual's eligibility so that a recipient has an opportunity to discuss his situation before receiving formal written notice of reduction in payment or termination of assistance.

 Handbook of Public Assistance Administration, Part IV, § 2300(d)(5) (1968) ("Handbook").

 The remedies for a welfare recipient who has been wrongfully suspended or terminated have also been changed in another significant respect. At the time the suit was commenced, New York granted a reinstated recipient retroactive benefits for only two months and then only to the extent of debts for necessities which had been incurred. *fn5" Since the delay between wrongful termination of benefits and subsequent reinstatement often exceeded two months, the limit on retroactivity worked hardship. However, effective July 1, 1968, pursuant to a change in regulations issued by HEW, payments are now made fully retroactive and are not confined to reimbursement for debts incurred. *fn6"

 As a result of these changes, welfare recipients in New York State now have a two-step procedure to protect them against allegedly wrongful termination or suspension of benefits. The first, or pre-termination procedure, depends upon which of two options the local welfare agency has adopted. We are advised that in New York State, option (a) is in effect everywhere but in New York City, which has chosen to follow option (b). Both options are set forth in the margin. *fn7" Under option (a), the local agency must give seven days written notice, specifying the reasons for suspension, before aid is stopped. The recipient is entitled to appear before an official, who is superior to the one who approved the suspension, and can present oral and written evidence with the aid of an attorney or other representative. Option (b), adopted by New York City, offers less procedural protection; e.g., although the notice provision is the same, the welfare recipient is entitled to submit a statement in writing to demonstrate why aid should continue. Under either option, if the recipient is unsuccessful, benefits cease. Thereafter, the terminated recipient is entitled to the second step, the so-called state "fair hearing," *fn8" which spells out significant procedural rights and is a trial-type proceeding. Thus, that hearing is before an independent state hearing officer; the complaining recipient has the right of confrontation and cross-examination of the witnesses against him; and a verbatim record is made of the hearing. The state regulations provide that the state fair hearing is to be held within ten working days of receipt of a request for the hearing, and a decision is to be rendered as soon as feasible, and, in any event, not later than twelve working days from the close of the hearing. *fn9"


 Plaintiffs allege that even with the improved procedures, they are threatened with termination of assistance in a manner that is both unconstitutional and improper under the governing statute and regulations. Their constitutional argument is that under the due process clause of the fourteenth amendment they are entitled to a constitutionally adequate hearing before termination of benefits and that the procedures provided by the state and city do not meet this standard. Defendants do not deny plaintiffs' general propositions that the terminations here under attack amount to "state action" and that the protections of the due process clause apply. Nor do defendants attempt to argue that welfare benefits are a "privilege," rather than a right, and that therefore they may fix the procedures of termination as they see fit. *fn10" However, defendants do claim that the combined hearing procedures now provided to welfare recipients meet constitutional and statutory requirements.

 We agree with defendants that the state fair hearing procedure after termination of benefits seems constitutionally sufficient. *fn11" Defendants argue that combining the post-termination procedure with an informal pre-termination "hearing" disposes of all due process claims, citing principally Wheeler v. Montgomery, 296 F. Supp. 138 (N.D.Cal.1968) (three-judge court), appeal docketed, 37 U.S.L.W. 3152 (U.S. Oct. 22, 1968) (No. 634). In that case, as in this, state hearing procedures for termination of welfare changed during the litigation. There, the state provided an "informal conference" before termination and a full hearing procedure within a few months thereafter. The court determined the constitutionality of the former "in light of" the latter and held that the combined procedure complied with due process. *fn12"

 While post-termination review is relevant, there is one overpowering fact which controls here. By hypothesis, a welfare recipient is destitute, without funds or assets. The case of Angela Velez, one of the proposed intervenors, makes the point starkly. She was terminated on March 11, 1968, because her husband allegedly visited her home every night. She requested the post-termination state fair hearing in mid-March. The hearing was held in June, and, pursuant to the request of this court for expedition, the decision issued on July 10. The State Commissioner found that the information that caused suspension of benefits came from Mrs. Velez's landlady, that the information was untrue, that the husband does not live with his wife, that she had obtained a court order in 1966 to prevent his night visits, that he is allowed to visit the four small children only on Wednesday, and that at that time he brings his support money of $30 a week, but no more, in accordance with an agreement worked out in Family Court. Accordingly, the State Commissioner directed the local agency to reinstate assistance. However, in the four months between termination of AFDC benefits and the decision reversing the local agency, Mrs. Velez and her four children, ages one to six, were evicted from her apartment for nonpayment of rent and went to live with her sister, who has nine children and is on relief. Mrs. Velez and three children have been sleeping in two single beds in a small room, and the youngest sleeps in a crib in the same room. Thirteen children and two adults have been living in one apartment, and Mrs. Velez states that she has been unable to feed her children adequately, so that they have lost weight and have been ill.

 The case of Mrs. Esther Lett, one of the original plaintiffs, is also instructive. According to the affidavits of plaintiff Lett and her Legal Aid Society attorney: She and her four dependents, aged three months to fifteen years, were abruptly terminated from public assistance on February 1, 1968. The purported ground was that she had concealed her current employment by the Board of Education. In fact, she had worked for Operation Head Start in July and August 1967, but had not been employed by the Board of Education after August 20, 1967. Since that date and up to February 1968, she had worked at Day Care Centers on twenty-six different days, earning a total of $300, with the knowledge of the local welfare agency. As a result of termination of assistance, she and her dependents were forced to live on the handouts of neighbors. On February 18, she and her family had to go to the hospital for severe diarrhea, apparently brought on by the only meal they had had that day -- spoiled chicken and rice donated by a neighbor. She applied for emergency aid and a post-termination state "fair hearing" but the aid was refused and the fair hearing was not scheduled. Through the herculean efforts of The Legal Aid Society, including numerous telephone calls and three personal trips to local agencies, it was learned that the Board of Education had apparently made an error. However, the Board would not so inform the welfare agency until it requested a new verification. On Tuesday, February 27, Mrs. Lett went to a local center to seek emergency aid. Because she had not eaten all day, she fainted in the center, but when she awoke she was told that she could not get money for food immediately because it had not yet been authorized. Finally, after waiting eight hours, she was given $15 to feed herself and four dependents and told to return on Friday. After suit was brought, her assistance was apparently temporarily reinstated without prejudice.

 We do not know what the truth is with regard to Mrs. Lett's alleged concealment of employment, although on the present record it appears that the termination of benefits was improper. *fn13" As for Mrs. Velez, it is clear that the decision to terminate her payments was wrong. But the issue is not whether a specific termination was proper, but whether the procedures used were justifiable. There is no need to elaborate with further case histories. Suffice it to say that to cut off a welfare recipient in the face of this kind of "brutal need" *fn14" without a prior hearing of some sort is unconscionable, unless overwhelming considerations justify it. Traditionally, such considerations have been urgent in nature and involve the health, safety, or well-being of many individuals. "Drastic administrative action is sometimes essential to take care of problems that cannot be allowed to wait for the completion of formal proceedings." 1 K. Davis, Administrative Law Treatise P7.08, at 438 (1958), citing cases where great harm to the public was, or could be, immediately threatened. *fn15"

 We turn then to examine the pressing need here that would justify a departure from the general standard of "the requisite [due process] hearing * * * before the final order becomes effective." *fn16" Simply stated by defendant New York City Commissioner, it is the "need to protect the public's tax revenues." This is, of course, not only a legitimate, but a necessary, concern of defendants, but the argument requires close analysis. Clearly, the state must see to it that assistance goes only to those who are entitled to it. However, the issue here affects only the continuation of benefits while a claim of ineligibility is disputed. Defendants' asserted justification for the termination procedures now being used is therefore quite narrow. It is the additional cost of providing more elaborate procedures to determine whether the tentative decision to terminate benefits was correct, a cost which may come both from an increase in the number of hearings and from an extension of average time from notice of termination to end of hearing, during which period benefits continue. It is clearly within the power of the state and city to minimize that additional cost by various methods, e.g., by expediting hearings, by increasing the number of hearing officials, by utilizing statutory rights to recover monies paid since the date of ineligibility. Cf. Snell v. Wyman, 281 F. Supp. 853 (S.D.N.Y.), appeal docketed, 393 U.S. 813, 89 S. Ct. 106, 21 L. Ed. 2d 89 (1968). Moreover, it should be remembered that, insofar as AFDC or other categorical assistance is concerned, federal contributions are available to meet fifty per cent of the cost of benefits paid pending review and the administrative expense of the hearing procedures. See Handbook, Part IV, § 6500 (1968).

 Against the justified desire to protect public funds must be weighed the individual's overpowering need in this unique situation not to be wrongfully deprived of assistance, and the startling statistic that post-termination fair hearings apparently override prior decisions to terminate benefits in a substantial number of cases. *fn17" The obvious fact is that there is no way truly to make whole a recipient like Mrs. Velez for the indignity of living with her sister and thirteen children in one apartment because of a wrongful termination. The equally obvious remedy is to take greater care to prevent such injustice before it occurs. While the problem of additional expense must be kept in mind, *fn18" it does not justify denying a hearing meeting the ordinary standards of due process. *fn19" Under all the circumstances, we hold that due process requires an adequate hearing before termination of welfare benefits, and the fact that there is a later constitutionally fair proceeding does not alter the result. *fn20" In short, we must focus on the adequacy of the hearing procedures which defendants have provided prior to termination of benefits.


 Cases dealing with procedural requirements of a hearing before an administrative tribunal are many and varied, involving such diverse administrative actions as discharge from public employment, *fn21" refusal to license, *fn22" revocation of security clearance, *fn23" treatment of aliens, *fn24" and admission to the bar, *fn25" to name only a few. Before considering plaintiffs' formidable list of objections to the pre-termination hearing procedures afforded welfare recipients, some observations based upon these and related cases may be in order.

 1. It is impossible to define rigidly what constitutes procedural due process for all purposes. "[Due] process of law has never been a term of fixed and invariable content." FCC v. WJR, 337 U.S. 265, 275, 69 S. Ct. 1097, 1103, 93 L. Ed. 1353 (1949). "The very nature of due process negates any concept of inflexible procedures universally applicable to every imaginable situation." Cafeteria Workers Local 473 v. McElroy, 367 U.S. 886, 895, 81 S. Ct. 1743, 1748, 6 L. Ed. 2d 1230 (1961).


"Due process" is an elusive concept. Its exact boundaries are undefinable, and its content varies according to specific factual contexts. * * * [As] a generalization, it can be said that due process embodies the differing rules of fair play, which through the years, have become associated with differing types of proceedings. Whether the Constitution requires that a particular right obtain in a specific proceeding depends upon a complexity of factors. The nature of the alleged right involved, the nature of the proceeding, and the possible burden on that proceeding, are all considerations which must be taken into account.

 Hannah v. Larche, 363 U.S. 420, 442, 80 S. Ct. 1502, 1514, 4 L. Ed. 2d 1307 (1960).

 2. While it is a well established principle that courts should not decide issues of procedural deficiency on constitutional grounds if any other avenues of decision are open, see Greene v. McElroy, 360 U.S. 474, 509, 79 S. Ct. 1400, 3 L. Ed. 2d 1377 (1959) (concurring opinion); Ashwander v. TVA, 297 U.S. 288, 346-347, 56 S. Ct. 466, 80 L. Ed. 688 (1936) (concurring opinion), we believe that the constitutional issue must be faced here. It is true that plaintiffs not only invoke due process but also rely on the requirement of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. § 602(a)(4) that:


A State plan for aid and services to needy families with children must * * * (4) provide for granting an opportunity for a fair hearing before the State agency to any individual whose claim for aid to families with dependent children is denied or is not acted upon with reasonable promptness * * *. *fn26"

 By interpreting the statutory phrase "fair hearing" in the context of pretermination procedures, *fn27" we might have avoided the constitutional questions. See Greene v. McElroy, 360 U.S. 474, 496-497, 507-508, 79 S. Ct. 1400, 3 L. Ed. 2d 1377 (1959). However, the command of the federal statute does not apply to state and local general assistance, for which no federal funds are provided. Six of the original and intervening plaintiffs *fn28" receive such assistance only; as to them the constitutional issue is squarely posed.

 3. We must thus decide what specific procedural safeguards are constitutionally required for welfare recipients in a pre-termination proceeding. While the Supreme Court has been solicitous to assure "traditional forms of fair procedure" in administrative hearings, Greene v. McElroy, supra, 360 U.S. at 508, 79 S. Ct. 1400, we do not believe that every person directly affected by administrative action must be afforded all of the procedural rights guaranteed in a full-fledged judicial trial. See, e.g., Dixon v. Alabama State Board of Education, 294 F.2d 150, 159 (5th Cir.), cert. denied, 368 U.S. 930, 82 S. Ct. 368, 7 L. Ed. 2d 193 (1961); cf. Hyser v. Reed, 115 U.S. App. D.C. 254, 318 F.2d 225 (D.C. Cir.), cert. denied, 375 U.S. 957, 84 S. Ct. 446, 11 L. Ed. 2d 315 (1963). Rather, we are called upon to determine what minimum procedural safeguards are required here in the context of the welfare system.


 We turn first to the procedures provided under option (b) which is in effect in New York City. Option (b) provides for notice of "proposed discontinuance or suspension * * * together with the reasons for the intended action," and allows the recipient in response only to "submit in writing a statement or other evidence to demonstrate why his grant should not be discontinued * * *." The option does not envisage a personal appearance.

 A hearing on a proposed termination of welfare benefits is, of course, a classic instance of determination of what have been called "adjudicative facts -- facts pertaining to a particular party." 1 K. Davis, Administrative Law Treatise P7.20, at 506 (1958). If the right to a hearing in this context, fairly construed, means anything, it is literally the right to be heard. This is hardly a novel idea. In Londoner v. Denver, 210 U.S. 373, 28 S. Ct. 708, 52 L. Ed. 1103 (1908), the Supreme Court specifically rejected the notion that permission to submit objections in writing comported with due process, and concluded that "a hearing in its very essence demands that he who is entitled to it shall have the right to support his allegations by argument however brief, and, if need be, by proof, however informal." 210 U.S. at 386, 28 S. Ct. at 714. See also Goldsmith v. U.S. Board of Tax Appeals, 270 U.S. 117, 123, 46 S. Ct. 215, 70 L. Ed. 494 (1926). We do not deal here with the issue whether procedural due process requires the right to oral argument on a matter of law. See FCC v. WJR, 337 U.S. 265, 276, 69 S. Ct. 1097, 93 L. Ed. 1353 (1949). We have the different question whether a welfare recipient has the right to appear in person before the welfare agency to present his case. On an issue of such immediate and crucial impact as termination of welfare benefits, we conclude that the right to be heard means the right to be heard in person. Defendants cite to us Morgan v. United States, 298 U.S. 468, 481, 56 S. Ct. 906, 80 L. Ed. 1288 (1936), and Boston & Maine R.R. v. United States, 208 F. Supp. 661 (D.Mass.), aff'd mem., 371 U.S. 26, 83 S. Ct. 117, 9 L. Ed. 2d 95 (1962). It is true that Morgan contained the dictum that "[argument] may be oral or written," 298 U.S. at 481, 56 S. Ct. at 912, but we do not take that to mean that in this case there is no constitutional right to present evidence, as opposed to argument, in person. Moreover, the case is clearly distinguishable on its facts. *fn29" In Boston & Maine, plaintiffs had had "a full opportunity to present their defense by oral and documentary evidence." 208 F. Supp. at 667.

 Not only is the right to a personal appearance ordinarily implicit in the constitutional concept of a fair hearing, but the reality of the status of many welfare recipients makes the invitation to submit their cases in writing cruelly ironic. The burden of marshalling and writing down persuasive arguments in opposition to frequently vague or cryptic charges would discourage even a relatively well-educated layman. In fact, many welfare recipients clearly lack the education or sophistication either to understand the reason for their proposed termination or to prepare an adequate written defense. *fn30" Moreover, a review of the cases of the individual plaintiffs in this action is persuasive that many of the disputes as to eligibility could have been easily resolved by an interchange of questions and answers between the recipient and the welfare official supervising the case. In the case of Mrs. Lett, for instance, *fn31" a conference about the facts of her employment with an impartial official might have quickly cleared up the misunderstanding and prevented the severe hardships that she suffered. Certainly the give and take of an informal hearing would be more likely to produce a just disposition than an attempt on her part to furnish a written rebuttal of her alleged "failure to disclose assets."

 Even if the majority of welfare recipients were educationally equipped to write a clear statement of the reasons why they should not be terminated, the very summary form of notice of proposed terminations makes an intelligent reply difficult. *fn32" Not only are the reasons given often incomprehensibly vague, but additional or wholly different reasons may in fact be behind the decision to terminate. *fn33" A personal hearing is necessary, if the recipient wishes it, both to explain to him the nature of the charges against him and to inform him of the evidence on which they are based. Indeed, the next most glaring deficiency of option (b) is its failure to require disclosure to the recipient of the real basis of the case against him. It merely provides for notice of proposed discontinuance "together with the reasons for the intended action." This procedure clearly falls far short of giving the recipient sufficient notice of the case against him so that he may ascertain its basis and contest it effectively. In Willner v. Committee on Character and Fitness, 373 U.S. 96, 107, 83 S. Ct. 1175, 1182, 10 L. Ed. 2d 224 (1963), the concurring opinion of Justices Goldberg, Brennan and Stewart States:


The constitutional requirements in this context may be simply stated: in all cases in which admission to the bar is to be denied on the basis of character, the applicant, at some stage of the proceedings prior to such denial, must be adequately informed of the nature of the evidence against him and be accorded an adequate opportunity to rebut this evidence.

 At least seven, if not all, *fn34" of the Justices agreed with this statement.

 The stakes are simply too high for the welfare recipient, and the possibility for honest error or irritable misjudgment too great, to allow termination of aid without giving the recipient a chance, if he so desires, to be fully informed of the case against him so that he may contest its basis and produce evidence in rebuttal. *fn35" Moreover, in some instances at least, he must be permitted to meet the evidence against him by having questions put to the source of that evidence. There have been cited to us too many case histories in which welfare recipients have allegedly been cut off on the basis of untrue rumors and reports, as with Mrs. Velez, discussed above. We do not hold that the welfare recipient about to be terminated must be accorded the opportunity for confrontation and cross-examination in a formal manner, with the full panoply of a trial-type hearing, including testimony under oath. The right to face those providing harmful information and have them interrogated may be substantially achieved in an informal way, and we use the term "cross-examination" here in that less formal sense. Moreover, we are aware that such a requirement is time-consuming and if applied indiscriminately in every case might unduly delay administration of the entire welfare system. There will undoubtedly be many cases -- perhaps a great many -- in which the material relied upon by the welfare agency "appears from information supplied or confirmed by the applicant himself, or is of an undisputed documentary character disclosed to the applicant * * *." Willner v. Committee on Character and Fitness, 373 U.S. 96, 108, 83 S. Ct. 1175, 1182, 10 L. Ed. 2d 224 (1963) (concurring opinion). *fn36" But where termination of benefits "depends upon information supplied by a particular person whose reliability or veracity is brought into question by the applicant, confrontation and the right of cross-examination should be afforded." Id. *fn37" It may be that something less would be appropriate in such a case if the welfare authorities could show an important interest in secrecy, cf. McCray v. Illinois, 386 U.S. 300, 87 S. Ct. 1056, 18 L. Ed. 2d 62 (1967), but no such interest has been demonstrated in any of the cases before us. We assume that any such situation would be the rare exception to be justified on the particular facts involved. We do not suggest that a "tip" or other confidential information may not properly trigger an investigation of a welfare recipient's eligibility. We hold only that when the decision is made to terminate benefits, the recipient must be afforded an opportunity to learn the evidence against him which the investigation turned up, if it was a basis of that decision, and when the value of that evidence turns upon a person's credibility, the recipient must have the opportunity to test it as set forth above. We realize that these requirements will duplicate the "fair hearing" post-termination procedure to some extent. However, any pre-termination hearing -- even the type already put into effect by the state -- also does that. Undue duplication is of course regrettable. However, we regard the informal conference envisioned here as quite different from a full-fledged trial-type post-termination "fair hearing" with testimony given under oath. In any event, in light of the shattering effect of wrongful termination of benefits upon a recipient, we believe that the procedures called for here are minimum requirements of due process.

 Accordingly, therefore, we conclude that option (b) is constitutionally inadequate and that plaintiffs' application for a preliminary injunction against the use of the option in New York City must be granted. However, because argument has also been addressed to the legal sufficiency of the provisions of option (a) and because New York will be faced under our ruling with the need to substitute for option (b), we feel it is our obligation also to consider the constitutionality of procedures under option (a).

 That option states that the notice of proposed termination shall advise the recipient that if he makes a request for review he will be afforded:


opportunity to present such written and oral relevant evidence and reasons as the recipient may have to demonstrate why his grant should not be discontinued or suspended, * * *

 and at such a review, the designated welfare official shall:


review with the recipient and his representative, if any, the evidence and reasons supporting the proposed action and shall thereupon afford the recipient opportunity to present relevant evidence and to state reasons why the proposed discontinuance or suspension should not be made. *fn38"

 This language makes clear that option (a) does not suffer from some of the obvious inadequacies of option (b). Thus, option (a) does provide for a hearing in person, and, fairly construed, for disclosure to the recipient of the evidence against him. It is not clear whether the source of the evidence must be identified and the recipient thereafter given the right, in an appropriate case, to confront a person so disclosed and have him questioned. The regulation's silence on this point, when compared with the specificity of the state hearing procedure provided after termination, *fn39" might indicate that the recipient is denied such right. We have already ruled that this would be constitutionally invalid. Therefore, unless option (a) is construed to afford a recipient such right in an appropriate case, the procedure is improper. But in view of the newness of the regulation and the paucity of information given us on its use outside of New York City, we will not assume at this time that the right will be denied.

 Plaintiffs have other objections to option (a), but to the extent that they have not already been dealt with, they do not require extensive discussion. *fn40" Implicit in what we have already said is the requirement that the decision of the reviewing official must be based solely on evidence before him which has been made available to the recipient, except in the rare instance already discussed when there is an important interest in secrecy. *fn41" An objection is made to the notice requirement, but it is not persuasive. Option (a) requires notice in writing "at least 7 days prior to the proposed effective date of the discontinuance." We construe this to mean that the notice must be mailed at least seven days before such effective date. If so mailed, the notice is adequate.

 The final objection to option (a) as written is that the welfare official reviewing the proposed termination of benefits is not impartial. Option (a) provides that:


Only the social services official or an employee of his social services department who occupies a position superior to that of the supervisor who approved the proposed discontinuance or suspension shall be designated to make such a review.

 This is obviously an attempt to have "review" of a supervisor's decision to terminate by someone more disinterested than he is. Since the review, however, is by another employee of the welfare agency, there is a possibility that the reviewing official will have had some prior official contact with the case. However, we are unable to say that the possible involvement of that official in aspects of a case prior to the review of proposed termination necessarily disqualifies him from conducting a fair hearing. Some degree of previous familiarity and informal contact with a case by a hearing officer is a common phenomenon in many administrative agencies. That the review officer is familiar with, or even has formulated opinions about, the facts of a case prior to review is not in itself sufficient to disqualify him. *fn42" However, plaintiffs argue that this reviewing officer is in practice frequently a case supervisor who has been consulted in advance for approval of proposed terminations and may even have initiated the recommendation to terminate. We would regard such a practice as a clear violation of the spirit of the requirement that the reviewing officer be superior to "the supervisor who approved the proposed discontinuance." In other words, the regulation meets the requirement of a fair hearing, but we expect the welfare department to enforce it strictly. *fn43"

 In addition to their allegations of the insufficiency of the New York hearing procedures on their face, plaintiffs complain that the regulations themselves are frequently disregarded or improperly applied. They have offered evidence showing, for instance, that the notice often is not sent out within seven days of the proposed termination or before termination at all, that notices fail to state the full or real reasons for proposed termination, and that the review decision is frequently delayed unduly. We recognize that the transition to a new system of procedures, especially in an agency as large as the New York City Welfare Department, is not an easy task, and that it necessarily takes time to achieve full and smooth operation. Moreover, we are confident that the agency will make every effort in the future to insure that its own regulations and the requirements outlined in this opinion are carefully observed in practice. Finally, we are well aware that proceedings to compel state officials to comply with their statutory or regulatory duties should usually be brought in state courts, *fn44" and that supervision of a state administrative program is ordinarily an inappropriate role for a threejudge federal court. In view of all of these considerations and the fact that the plaintiffs before us are obtaining an injunction against use of option (b), the procedure which has been applicable to their terminations up to now, we will not now deal with these issues further.


 With this disposition of the case, it is unnecessary to rule on plaintiffs' remaining statutory argument that by providing two options throughout the state for pre-termination procedure, the state violates the requirement of 42 U.S.C. § 602(a)(1), that its plan, in effect, be uniform in the state. Apparently, defendants do not press before us various other arguments originally made before Judge Bryan, such as plaintiffs' need to exhaust available remedies administratively, or that the case is moot because most plaintiffs are now receiving public assistance on an emergency basis, or that a three-judge court is inappropriate here. Judge Bryan rejected these arguments in his opinion convening the three-judge court. 294 F. Supp. at 887.

 As to the first argument, see King v. Smith, 392 U.S. 309, 312 n. 4, 88 S. Ct. 2128, 20 L. Ed. 2d 1118 (1968). As to the second argument, the only development since Judge Bryan's decision is that some of these plaintiffs have received their post-termination state fair hearings. However, that this right was finally accorded to them months after their complaint was filed and after termination of benefits does not dispose of the case. Other plaintiffs are still threatened with termination without a proper hearing, and if we were required to do so, we would regard this as a class action, as plaintiffs request, as was done in Wheeler v. Montgomery, No. 48303 (N.D.Cal. April 17, 1968), appeal docketed, 37 U.S.L.W. 3152 (U.S. Oct. 22, 1968) (No. 634), relied on by defendants. Finally, Judge Bryan properly convened the three-judge court. The complaint obviously raised substantial constitutional issues. In addition, while option (b) may thus far have actually been in effect only in New York City, any or all local agencies could adopt it; it is thus validly a regulation of "general and state wide application." Moody v. Flowers, 387 U.S. 97, 101, 87 S. Ct. 1544, 18 L. Ed. 2d 643 (1967).

 Finally, we emphasize again that we deal here only with procedural rights, not with whether a particular recipient of welfare is entitled to receive it. We are most aware that abuses of the welfare system do exist, and we do not minimize the need to keep welfare expense within manageable bounds. We do not suggest that welfare payments should be made to anyone not entitled to receive them. We hold only that a welfare recipient is entitled to certain minimum procedural protections before his payments are cut off or diminished. Providing those protections will, of course, help to insure fair individual treatment. In addition, it will have the more subtle, but equally important, effect of demonstrating that fair procedures are available, thus protecting the rule of law in society, a not insignificant result. *fn45"

 To sum up: We hold that a pre-termination hearing for welfare recipients is constitutionally required and that the procedures set forth above for such hearing are the constitutional minimum. Accordingly, we deny defendants' motion for summary judgment; we grant plaintiffs' motion for a preliminary injunction as to the operation of option (b), and deny it as to option (a), for the reasons and on the conditions stated herein. In addition, nothing herein is meant to affect the right to a post-termination hearing in accordance with the procedures already in existence. Plaintiffs also moved to dissolve an order of Judge Bryan's staying discovery pending disposition of the motions in chief. Since that discovery was primarily designed to prove that the various hearing procedures, even if constitutional on their face, were unconstitutional in their application, for the reasons already set forth we deny it. Plaintiffs' motion to amend the complaint in the consolidated case is granted, as is the motion of the twelve intervenors to intervene.

 Settle order on notice; if defendants desire a stay pending appellate review, their proposed order should so provide.

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