The opinion of the court was delivered by: BONSAL
Plaintiff Nichimen Company, Inc., of New York, N.Y., instituted this action for cargo damage against the MV FARLAND, her owner A/S Vigra ("Vigra"), and the time charterer Seaboard Shipping Co., Ltd. ("Seaboard"). The issues were tried before the court without a jury.
Plaintiff, a wholly owned subsidiary of Nichimen Co., Ltd., purchased 280 coils of steel from Nichimen Co., Ltd. (of Tokyo, Japan) by invoice dated December 15, 1964 and irrevocable letter of credit payable on presentation of clean on board bills of lading.
On August 8, 1963, Vigra, as owner of the FARLAND, had entered into a time charter with Seaboard as charterer. Clause 8 of that time charter provided:
"8. * * * The Captain (although appointed by the Owners), shall be under the orders and directions of the Charterers as regards employment and agency; and Charterers are to load, stow, and trim the cargo at their expense under the supervision of the Captain, who is to sign Bills of Lading for cargo as presented, in conformity with Mate's or Tally Clerk's receipts."
On December 7, 1964, a "Freight Contract" was entered into between Seaboard as " Time chartered Owners" and plaintiff as "Charterers" whereby Seaboard agreed to supply a minimum of two holds of the FARLAND for the transportation of plaintiff's steel coils from Wakayama, Japan to New Haven, Connecticut. The rate of freight was "$9.00 (nine dollars) U.S. Currency per long ton F.I.O. fully prepaid in New York on telegraphic advice of completion of loading and signing Bills of Lading." The "Freight Contract" provided further that:
"The carrier does not assume the care, custody, control or safety of, and shall not be liable for the cargo until after it is loaded on board the vessel, nor for demurrage, storage or any other charges that may accrue against shipment while awaiting delivery to vessel.
"Subject to provisions of carrier's bill of lading form currently in use in connection with shipments to destination named above."
The coils consigned to plaintiff were loaded on board the FARLAND, a six hold self-trimming bulk carrier, at Wakayama, Japan, on December 14-15, 1964. The FARLAND had no 'tween deck.
The coils, which weighed from 3-9 tons each, were strapped by 1 1/4" x 1/16" steel bands -- two around the circumference and five passing through the eye at equal intervals. This is the usual manner of strapping steel coils, and the strapping was sufficient for this type of cargo. Edge protectors consisting of steel strips were also used.
While plaintiff paid the cost of loading the coils on board the FARLAND under the "Freight Contract," the coils were stowed and lashed under the supervision of a "specialist" who was hired by Aall & Co., Ltd. ("Aall & Co."), Seaboard's port agent at Wakayama. One hundred forty-two coils were stowed in Hold No. 2 from the after bulkhead and forward in six rows, two tiers high. The forward row was not fully stowed, however, as there was an opening at the center which was shored off with heavy lumber. One hundred thirty-eight coils were stowed in Hold No. 4 from the after bulkhead and forward in three rows, three tiers high. In both Holds Nos. 2 and 4, the coils were stacked up at the after end and the remainder of the hold was left empty. All of the coils were stowed on the round with their ends facing fore and aft and were lashed with wire, turnbuckles and open turnbuckle hooks. The lashings were secured to pad eyes welded to the side bulkheads in Hold No. 2 and to pad eyes welded to the after bulkhead in Hold No. 4. According to the master of the FARLAND, "very little" wood was used, but some wood, in dimensions of 1 X 2, 2 X 4, 2 X 5, and 1 X 6, was used between some of the coils as dunnage to prevent them from shifting. The wire, turnbuckles, hooks, pad eyes, and wood were provided by Aall & Co., Seaboard's agent. The master testified in his deposition that Seaboard's "specialist" directed that the coils be stacked at the after end of Holds Nos. 2 and 4 because the FARLAND was scheduled to stop at Vancouver, British Columbia, en route to New Haven to load Seaboard's lumber in all six holds and Seaboard desired as much space as possible in the bottom of Holds Nos. 2 and 4 to operate fork lifts when loading the lumber.
Nippon, Kaiji, Kentei, Kyokai, general marine surveyors, attended aboard the FARLAND on December 14-15, 1964, at the request of the shipper, Nichimen Co., Ltd., and reported on December 21, 1964 that the stowage of the cargo was proper and done in the best possible way to ensure safe transportation and delivery. In a deposition, the master of the FARLAND expressed his opinion that the coils had been properly stowed and lashed.
Upon completion of the loading on December 15, 1964, a bill of lading on Aall & Co.'s form was issued with respect to the 280 steel coils consigned to plaintiff. The bill of lading was signed by Aall & Co. "For and on behalf of the Master", and stated that the coils were shipped "in apparent good order and condition" by Nichimen Co., Ltd. on board the FARLAND for carriage from Wakayama to New Haven. The master testified that he did not see the bill of lading but that the usual practice was for Seaboard, or its agent, to sign the bills of lading on his behalf. The bill of lading was endorsed on the face as follows:
"Freight payable as per the terms and conditions of the Charter Party and/or the freight engagement.
"All the terms and conditions of the governing Charter Party and/or the Freight Engagement are ...