The opinion of the court was delivered by: CONNER
Plaintiff Josephine McGraw and her nine dependent children are recipients of public assistance benefits under the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, 42 U.S.C. § 601 et seq. The individual defendants are public officials legally responsible for administration of the AFDC program in New York. AFDC is among the categorical assistance programs established under the Social Security Act and is financed by the Federal Government and participating States on a matching-fund basis.
The present action represents a challenge to the validity and continued enforcement of 18 New York Code of Rules and Regulations § 352.31(d)(1)(ii)
(the New York regulation). That challenge extends to so much of the New York regulation as authorizes the defendant New York State Department of Social Services (the State agency) to recoup a past AFDC grant overpayment -- where such overpayment is not occasioned by the recipient's wilful act or omission -- from what is commonly denominated as an earned income "disregard."
Alleging that the New York regulation stands in contravention of the Social Security Act and operates in derogation of due process and equal protection under the Fourteenth Amendment, plaintiff brought this suit for a declaratory judgment and preliminary and permanent injunctions pursuant to 28 U.S.C. §§ 2201 and 2202, Rule 57 F.R.Civ.P. and 42 U.S.C. § 1983. Because plaintiff's constitutional claims, whatever their ultimate merits, are at the least arguable, this Court concludes that it has subject matter jurisdiction under 28 U.S.C. § 1343(3) and therefore may consider the pendent statutory claim, United Mine Workers v. Gibbs, 383 U.S. 715, 16 L. Ed. 2d 218, 86 S. Ct. 1130 (1966), without need to convene a three-judge court unless the statutory claim proves not to be dispositive. Hagans v. Lavine, 415 U.S. 528, 39 L. Ed. 2d 577, 94 S. Ct. 1372 (1974).
At a pretrial conference addressed to plaintiff's motions for a temporary restraining order,
preliminary injunction, and class action certification, this Court determined that, in the absence of issues of material fact demanding an evidentiary hearing or trial, the parties' paper submissions would be treated as applications for summary judgment under Rule 56, F.R.Civ.P., allowing for plenary relief on the merits. The parties therefore were directed to file a statement of agreed facts pursuant to Rule 9(g) of the General Rules of this Court.
As the parties were advised at their conference with this Court, the class action designation sought by plaintiff would constitute, at best, procedural surplusage. This is not to say that the Court entertains any doubt that plaintiff might adequately represent the interests of those welfare recipients who, like herself, are immediately and intimately affected by the recoupment of agency overpayments from earned income disregards. Nor does the documentation supplied by the parties leave any basis for questioning the numerosity of a class that would consist of plaintiff and others similarly situated with respect to the issues presently before the Court.
Nonetheless, within the frame of the present case, certification of class action status would add no force to the prospective effects of a declaratory judgment and could not serve to implement any meaningful retroactive relief in which members of such a class might share: under the ruling of Edelman v. Jordan, 415 U.S. 651, 39 L. Ed. 2d 662, 94 S. Ct. 1347 (1974), this Court is without power to award welfare benefits retroactively. The Court thus declines to certify this action under Rule 23(c) F.R.Civ.P.
For the sake of clarity, the issues involved in this action are, in the discussion that follows, raised in relief from the background of plaintiff's personal welfare case history. Mrs. McGraw and her family have received semi-monthly AFDC payments for an unspecified number of years. Unemployed when she first became an AFDC recipient, Mrs. McGraw secured a job as a cook's helper more than three years ago, an employment that she has retained to date. Throughout that same period, the McGraw family has continued to receive AFDC assistance as a supplement to Mrs. McGraw's earned income.
In the fixing of AFDC benefits to be paid to the McGraws, the key point of reference is the "standard of need," an amount calculated by the State to be necessary to sustain a family of the McGraws' size; federal law itself neither prescribes the components nor targets the level of such standards. As the Supreme Court has recently observed,
"Under [the] HEW regulations [that implement Title IV,] * * * [both] eligibility for AFDC assistance and the amount of benefits to be granted an individual applicant are based on a comparison of the State's standard of need with the income and resources available to that applicant. 45 C.F.R. § 233.20(a)(2)(i). The 'income and resources' attributable to an applicant * * * consist generally of 'only such net income as is actually available for current use on a regular basis * * * and only currently available resources.' 45 C.F.R. § 233.20(a)(3)(ii)(c). * * *. If, [after consideration of certain deductions and exemptions], the net amount of 'earned income' is less than the predetermined statewide standard of need, the applicant is eligible for participation in the program and the amount of the assistance payments will be based upon that difference. 45 C.F.R. § 233.20 (a)(3)(ii) (a) and (c)." Shea v. Vialpando, 416 U.S. 251, 253-54, 40 L. Ed. 2d 120, 94 S. Ct. 1746 (1974).
The difference between the applicable standard of need and the AFDC recipient's "income and resources" is commonly referred to as the "budget deficit." When Mrs. McGraw became a wage earner, her family's own budget deficit was thereby affected in two ultimately measurable respects, in accordance with the commands of Section 402(a)(7) and (8) of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. § 602(a)(7) and (8). The relevant portions of those clauses read as follows:
(a) A State plan for aid and services to needy families with children must * * * (7) except as may be otherwise provided in clause (8), provide that the State agency shall, in determining need, take into consideration any other income and resources of any child or relative claiming aid * * *; (8) provide that, in making the determination under clause (7), the State agency --
(A) shall with respect to any month ...