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BERKMAN v. CITY OF NEW YORK

March 4, 1982

Brenda BERKMAN, on behalf of herself and a class consisting of all similarly situated women, Plaintiff,
v.
The CITY OF NEW YORK; Edward Koch, individually and as Mayor of the City of New York; New York City Fire Department; Augustus Beekman, individually and as Fire Commissioner of the City of New York; New York City Department of Personnel; Michael Nadel, individually and as Director of Personnel of the City of New York; Thomas Roche, individually and as former Director of Personnel of the City of New York; Civil Service Commission of the City of New York, Defendants



The opinion of the court was delivered by: SIFTON

MEMORANDUM DECISION AND ORDER

This is an action brought pursuant to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, 42 U.S.C. § 2000e et seq.; the Civil Rights Act of 1871, 42 U.S.C. § 1983; the fourteenth amendment to the United States Constitution; and Section 296 of the New York Human Rights Law (Executive Law), seeking declaratory and injunctive relief and damages to redress alleged sex-based discrimination against plaintiff and the class she represents in connection with the physical test portion of New York City's Examination 3040 ("Exam 3040") for the entry level position of firefighter in New York City.

 Plaintiff, Brenda Berkman, is a twenty-nine-year-old woman who passed the written portion of Exam 3040, but failed the physical test portion, which she took on February 22, 1978. The class she represents consists of 410 women who took the written portion of Exam 3040 and are alleged either to have taken the physical portion of Exam 3040 and failed it or to have been deterred from taking it as a result of sex discrimination by defendants. Defendants are the City of New York, its Mayor, the City's Fire Department and its Commissioner, the City's Personnel Department, its Director and former Director, and the Civil Service Commission of the City of New York. Appearing as Intervenors pursuant to this Court's Order of April 10, 1981, are the Uniform Firefighters Association ("UFA") and the Uniform Fire Officers Association ("UFOA"), both employee organizations representing current job incumbents.

 The trial of this case was conducted before the undersigned, sitting without a jury, over several weeks between September and December 1981. For the reasons set forth herein, I conclude that the physical portion of Exam 3040 discriminated against plaintiff and the class she represents on the basis of their sex and that injunctive relief is appropriate prohibiting further use of the eligibility list established pursuant to Exam 3040 except on a showing of compelling necessity, directing the preparation of a new physical exam which does not discriminate against women, and awarding plaintiff interim and other relief to secure compliance with the requirements of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended. What follows sets forth the findings of fact and conclusions of law on which these determinations are based, as required by Rule 52(a) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

 Jurisdiction over plaintiff's Title VII action exists under 42 U.S.C. § 2000e-5. Plaintiff, by filing her complaint with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission on May 16, 1978, has complied with the time limitations imposed by that section with respect to all of the named defendants except the defendant Fire and Personnel Departments and the Director of the latter Department, who were not named in plaintiff's administrative complaint. As to those defendants not named in plaintiff's administrative complaint jurisdiction exists since there is substantial identity between those defendants who were named in the conciliation proceeding and those not named and since those not named had notice of the pendency of the conciliation proceedings. Vulcan Society of Westchester County v. City of White Plains, 82 F.R.D. 379 (S.D.N.Y.1979).

 Jurisdiction exists over plaintiff's claim under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 and the fourteenth amendment by virtue of 28 U.S.C. § 1343. Pendant jurisdiction exists over plaintiff's claim under New York State's Human Rights Law.

 Background

 As of the end of 1980, New York City employed in excess of 285,000 persons. Of these, approximately 175,000 (including those in the City's Fire Department) were hired by the Department of Personnel. The balance were employed by independent agencies such as the Board of Education and the Off-track Betting Corporation.

 Of the approximately 175,000 employed by the Department of Personnel, approximately 168,000 (including those in the City's Fire Department) were in the competitive class, a class including all positions for which it is practicable to determine the merit and fitness of candidates by competitive examination. Employment statistics for the uniformed force of the New York City Fire Department for the period 1973 through 1981 were as follows: Year Firemen Officers Total 1973 10,720 2,548 13,394 1974 10,426 2,538 13,091 1975 9,089 2,347 11,548 1976 8,304 2,267 10,662 1977 8,847 2,329 11,271 1978 8,513 2,375 10,979 1979 8,966 2,404 11,466 1980 8,765 2,460 11,048 1981 9,042 2,563 11,616

 The Fire Department of the City of New York is charged with responsibility for extinguishment, prevention and investigation of fires occurring in the City. The most recent available statistics for operational firefighting incidents (1979) indicate a total of close to 350,000 incidents annually requiring Fire Department attention. The largest number of these incidents have been false alarms (162,529). A total of 43,072 of these incidents involved structural fires, of which the largest number occurred in residential buildings (31,504), the next largest, in vacant buildings (5,698), followed by fires in commercial (4,227) and public structures (1,643). Non-structural fires (71,298) exceeded structural fires. In addition to its ordinary firefighting duties, the Fire Department was, in 1979, called upon to respond to close to 72,250 other emergencies of various types.

 The Fire Commissioner is the head of the Department, responsible for policy decisions. The Chief of Department is charged with operational responsibility. Under the Chief of Department the uniformed force of the Department consists of the assistant chiefs, deputy assistant chiefs, deputy chiefs, battalion chiefs, chief medical officer, medical officers, chaplains, captains, lieutenants, marine engineers, pilots, and firemen.

 The uniformed force is organized into divisions, battalions, companies, and other operational units. A division is composed of one or more battalions and is commanded by a battalion chief. A company is composed of its captain, one or more lieutenants, and the firefighters assigned to it.

 The command structure of Department operations consists of borough commands in each of the five boroughs of New York City. Each borough command (with the exception of Staten Island) is composed of several divisions, the number varying in each borough. The borough commanders report to the Chief of Operations.

 Companies are divided into engine companies, ladder companies, rescue companies, and marine companies. An engine company consists of a pumper apparatus and an assigned complement of personnel (typically, one captain, three lieutenants, and 20 or 25 firefighters). One platoon (typically, one officer and four or five firefighters) is assigned to the apparatus on each tour of duty. The pumper apparatus consists of pumping equipment and carries lengths of hoseline, nozzles, and other equipment. The engine company is primarily responsible for the extinguishment of fires.

 A ladder company consists of a ladder truck apparatus and an assigned complement of personnel (typically, one captain, three lieutenants, and 25 firefighters). One platoon (typically, one officer and five firefighters) is assigned to the apparatus on each tour of duty. The ladder truck apparatus includes an extension ladder, portable ladders, tools and equipment for entry and ventilation of burning buildings, and a variety of other equipment. The members of the ladder company perform operations at a fire scene exclusive of extinguishment, including forcible entry, ventilation, search and rescue, and overhauling, the process of seeking hidden sources of fire after the visible fire is extinguished.

 There are at present 208 engine companies and 138 ladder companies in the Department. These are currently housed in 233 firehouses, most of which quarter one ladder company and one engine company.

 In addition to engine companies and ladder companies, there are rescue and marine companies. A rescue company consists of the rescue apparatus and an assigned complement of personnel (one captain, three lieutenants and 25 firefighters). A platoon (one officer and five firefighters) is assigned to the apparatus on each tour of duty. The members of a rescue company are assigned on an ad hoc basis at fires to augment ladder or engine company personnel. They also perform specialized search and extrication tasks, utilizing special tools carried on the apparatus for use in emergencies. There are four rescue companies in the City, one assigned to each borough, except Staten Island. Rescue companies respond to multiple alarm fires and unusual emergencies.

 A marine company is responsible for extinguishment of fires on the waterfront and in New York Harbor. A marine company consists of a captain, three lieutenants, four pilots, eight marine engineers, one wiper, and either ten to twenty firefighters. Forty-five firefighters are assigned to the marine division.

 Under Section 487a-3.0a. of the New York City Administrative Code (the "Administrative Code"), a member of the Fire Department must be a citizen of the United States, must be able to read and write the English language with understanding, and must have passed his or her eighteenth, but not twenty-ninth, birthday on the date of the filing of an application for civil service examination. No person will be appointed unless twenty-one years of age at the time of appointment. There is at present no restriction on the sex of applicants.

 There are four grades of firefighter. Section 487a-7.0 of the Administrative Code provides in this connection:

 
"Members of the uniformed force, upon appointment shall be assigned to the fourth grade; after one year of service in the fourth grade, they shall be advanced to the third grade; after one year in the third grade, they shall be advanced to the second grade; after one year in service in the second grade, they shall be advanced to the first grade; and they shall in each instance receive the annual pay or compensation of the grade to which they belong."

 The basic starting salary for firefighter fourth grade is currently $ 17,949.

 Under Section 487a-4.0 of the Administrative Code, preliminary to a permanent appointment as a firefighter, there is a period of probation of one year. Probationary firefighters undergo a six-week training program in the fundamentals of firefighting at the beginning of their probationary period.

 The Department of Personnel of New York City has responsibility for the hiring of Fire Department personnel. When staffing needs arise for the position of entry-level firefighter, the Fire Department advises the Department of Personnel and requests the scheduling of an entrance examination. The examination is prepared by the Department of Personnel with the assistance of the Fire Department. Scheduling, notification, receipt of applications, and administration of the examination are the responsibility of the Department of Personnel. The examination produces an eligible list of individuals who have passed the examination. Thereafter, the Department of Personnel and the Fire Department conduct further investigations, including background investigation, medical examination, and interviews, of sufficient members of the eligible list to satisfy projected hiring requirements. Candidates who satisfactorily complete the post-examination investigations are deemed qualified. In order to fill vacancies, the Fire Department will request certification of qualified eligible candidates from the Department of Personnel. Upon issuance of such certification, the Fire Department appoints candidates from the qualified eligible list.

 Examinations for the Position of Fireman Prior to Exam 3040

 From 1960 to 1971 the Department of Personnel administered five examinations for the position of fireman. None of these was open to women. These were the five examinations which immediately preceded Exam 3040, which is at issue in this lawsuit.

 From October 5, 1960, to January 31, 1961, pursuant to Notice of Examination 9010, the Department of Personnel accepted applications for the position of fireman. A written test for 9010 was administered March 3, 1961, and the eligible list was promulgated January 1, 1962. No physical test appears to have been administered.

 From July 5, 1962, to October 2, 1962, pursuant to Notice of Examination 9606, the Department of Personnel accepted applications for the position of fireman. A written test for 9606 was administered December 1, 1962, followed by a qualifying physical test. The physical test was graded on a pass/fail basis; the written test had a passing score of 70%. The eligible list resulting from this process was promulgated June 26, 1963.

 From December 3, 1963, to January 27, 1964, pursuant to Notice of Examination 9984, the Department of Personnel accepted applications for the position of fireman. A written test for 9984 was administered on May 19, 1964, followed by a competitive physical test from which an eligible list was promulgated. The written examination and the competitive physical examination were given equal weight. An average of 70% was required on the results of both written and physical tests in order to qualify for appointment.

 From April 3, 1968, to May 31, 1968, pursuant to Notice of Examination 7060, the Department of Personnel again accepted applications for the position of fireman. The competitive written test for 7060 was administered June 15, 1968, followed by a qualifying (pass/fail) physical test from which an eligible list was promulgated August 20, 1968. A 70% score on the written test was required to pass.

 From February 3, 1971, to August 18, 1971, pursuant to Notice of Examination 0159, the Department of Personnel accepted applications for the position of fireman. The written test for 0159 was administered on September 18, 1971, followed by a qualifying (pass/fail) physical test, and an eligible list was promulgated January 18, 1973. Again, a 70% score on the written test was required to pass.

 The Vulcan Society Litigation

 On January 12, 1973, immediately preceding the promulgation of the eligible list resulting from Exam 0159, the Vulcan and Hispanic Societies, representing black and Hispanic firefighters, commenced an action in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York pursuant to 42 U.S.C. §§ 1981 and 1983 and sought a preliminary injunction to restrain the New York City Personnel Department, Civil Service Commission, and Fire Department from appointing firemen from List No. 0159. Vulcan Society v. Civil Service Commission, 73 Civ. 201 (Weinfeld, J.).

 Thereafter, on June 12, 1973, Judge Weinfeld issued an opinion declaring Examination 0159 unconstitutional under the equal protection clause because of its discriminatory impact on blacks and Hispanics and enjoining defendants from making further appointments based on the examination's results, except upon a showing of compelling necessity. 360 F. Supp. 1265, aff'd in part and remanded, 490 F.2d 387 (2d Cir. 1973).

 Subsequently, on August 2, 1973, Judge Weinfeld issued an order directing defendants, inter alia, to proceed expeditiously to prepare a new examination for the position of fireman which did not discriminate against blacks and Hispanics in accordance with professionally accepted methods of test preparation.

 Retention of AIR

 The City had previously placed itself in a position from which it was able to commence compliance with Judge Weinfeld's direction with some rapidity. In 1970 Congress had enacted Public Law 91-648, known as the Intergovernmental Personnel Act ("IPA"), 84 Stat. 1909 (1970), which described itself as follows:

 
"An Act to reinforce the federal system by strengthening the personnel resources of State and local governments, to improve intergovernmental cooperation in the administration of grant-in-aid programs, to provide grants for improvement of State and local personnel administration, to authorize Federal assistance in training State and local employees, to provide grants to State and local governments for training of their employees, to authorize interstate compacts for personnel and training activities, to facilitate the temporary assignment of personnel between the Federal Government, the State and local governments, and for other purposes."

 Pursuant to Title II of the IPA, "Strengthening State and Local Personnel Administration," the United States Civil Service Commission was authorized to make grants to state and local governments to enable them to strengthen their staffs by improving personnel administration. Pub.L.No.91-648, § 201, 84 Stat. 1911 (1970).

 In January 1973, the City's Personnel Department had determined to take advantage of this federal program by applying for and receiving IPA funding for development of personnel tests and personnel test validation procedures. With the promise of such funding, the City, in January 1973, entered into two contracts with a Washington, D.C. consulting firm named American Institutes for Research ("AIR")-one directed towards developing a method of constructing valid physical selection tests for physically demanding city jobs, the other directed towards the development of suitable written examinations.

 Since IPA grants are awarded to support broad research projects and not to pay for the development of an operational selection procedure to select employees for a particular job, the 1973 City contracts looked to the development of generalizable approaches to job analysis, test development, and validation which could be applied to a wide variety of city jobs. In accordance with IPA requirements, both contracts were for one year only. However, each contract was thereafter renewed annually for the following two years.

 Although general in their overall objectives, both contracts provided that AIR would study three job titles in particular in order to develop more broadly applicable methods. In March 1973 the decision was made that the three jobs to be studied would be fireman, sanitation man, and parking enforcement agent.

 Specifically, as of January 1, 1973, the City contracted with AIR for the "Development of Physical Test Validation Procedures" to be applied to jobs with physical demands. The contract was authorized under IPA Grant No. 72-14. The full amount of the contract ($ 37,476) was to be paid with funds received from the U.S. Civil Service Commission. The term of the contract was January 1, 1973, through December 31, 1973, later extended to March 31, 1974. The second year of the City's contract with AIR for the "Development of Physical Test Validation Procedures" was carried out under IPA Grant No. 73-NY-27c. The full amount of the contract ($ 22,500) was to be payable with funds received from the U.S. Civil Service Commission. The term of the contract was April 1974, through December 31, 1974, later extended to February 15, 1975.

 Also, as of January 1, 1973, the City entered into a contract with AIR to develop written test procedures. Programs were to be developed which, with a minimum number of modifications, might be utilized for most entry-level City positions and some promotional positions. The contract was authorized under IPA Grant No. 72-5, and the full amount of the contract ($ 59,992) was to be payable with funds received from the U.S. Civil Service Commission. The term of the contract was January 1, 1973, to December 31, 1973, but was extended to March 31, 1974. The second year of the City's contract with AIR for the development of written test validation procedures was carried out under IPA Grant No. 73-NY-28c. The full amount of the contract ($ 19,956) was to be payable with funds received from the U.S. Civil Service Commission. The term of the contract was April 1, 1974, through December 31, 1974, later extended to February 15, 1975.

 While the parties to the contracts had contemplated that the overall term of the projects undertaken by AIR would last three years and while IPA grants (No. 75-NY-04c and No. 75-NY-05c in the amounts of $ 19,922 and $ 15,000 for the physical and written projects, respectively) to be paid in full by the U.S. Civil Service Commission had been issued, both contracts were cancelled by the City, effective September 30, 1976. These cancellations were explained by witnesses for the City at trial as attributable to the City's fiscal crisis. *fn1" Whatever the merits of this explanation the cancellations, as will be seen, had the unfortunate consequence of depriving the City of an opportunity, at least as part of AIR's IPA-funded work, to produce a criterion-based validation study of the physical test for fireman which is at issue in this litigation-that is, a follow-up study of those who passed the physical test to determine how well they performed as firefighters in order to decide if the test accurately predicted job performance.

 In all events, in the period immediately following the June 1973 decision in the Vulcan case, with AIR already performing pursuant to these two contracts and, coincidentally, investigating the position of City firefighter as one of the three job titles from which a generalizable approach was to be developed, the City understandably turned to AIR for the specific purpose of developing a new entrance level examination for firefighters as required by Judge Weinfeld's decision.

 Accordingly, on October 25, 1973, the City entered into a contract with AIR for the purpose of preparing an examination for firemen in the New York City Fire Department. The contract was not to exceed $ 32,500, and the work was to be completed by April 12, 1974, although this date too was later extended. In the contract AIR agreed, inter alia, to comply in the course of its work with EEOC Guidelines on employee selection pertaining to fair employment, to conduct a job analysis of the position of fireman, using material and expertise it had acquired on its two other contracts with the City, and to prepare, based on the job analysis, a notice of examination, test plan, written test, medical standards, and minimum standards and procedures to be followed in administration of the physical test. Precisely what portions of its earlier work in connection with the 1972 contracts were, in fact, drawn upon by AIR in developing Exam 3040 pursuant to this contract is the subject of considerable debate between the parties. However, since all parties are agreed that at least the physical abilities analysis ("PAA") conducted by AIR pursuant to the 1972 physical test contract formed a central part of the job analysis eventually relied upon to develop the firefighters' exam, it is appropriate to discuss that aspect of the job analysis first. *fn2"

 Physical Abilities Analysis

 The 1972 proposals for the IPA contracts specified that AIR's work for the City would build on previous research and methodology developed by Dr. Edwin Fleishman, an industrial psychologist, then the head of AIR's principal office. Dr. Fleishman's previous research in physical fitness measurement is reported in his book, The Structure and Measurement of Physical Fitness (1964). The book describes a method of factor analysis by which Dr. Fleishman identified eight basic physical fitness "factors" as comprising the domain of human physical performance. Dr. Fleishman isolated these factors by applying a factor-analysis methodology described in the book to test scores on various physical fitness tests-all, coincidentally, administered to male subjects.

 Factor analysis is a statistical technique for determining the minimum number of factors necessary to account for the inter-correlations among a set of variables. Through factor analysis, Dr. Fleishman isolated clusters of physical tests that appeared to measure the same underlying ability. Each cluster represents a factor. The correlation between a test and a factor is called a factor loading.

 The eight factors identified by Dr. Fleishman in his 1964 book are static strength, explosive strength, gross body equilibrium, extent flexibility, gross body coordination, dynamic strength, dynamic flexibility, and speed of limb movement. A ninth physical fitness factor, stamina, was subsequently adopted by Dr. Fleishman as an additional physical ability from tests reported by other researchers in the field of industrial psychology.

 Dr. Fleishman's 1964 book also identifies the factor loadings of each of the physical fitness tests on each factor and contains recommendations as to which tests best measure each hypothesized underlying ability. Tests were recommended on the basis of being "factorially pure," i.e., loading highest on the factor tested and not loading significantly on other factors. The book also contains data on the reliability of the various tests recommended.

 In 1970 and 1971 Dr. Fleishman undertook further research to identify the full range of all human abilities. Based on this work, he reported that there are 37 human abilities: 14 cognitive abilities, nine psychomotor abilities, five perceptual abilities, and the nine physical abilities enumerated above. Having identified the 37 human abilities, Dr. Fleishman and his colleagues developed a system of rating scales, known as the abilities analysis, which could be used by raters to indicate on a scale of one to seven how much of a given ability is needed to perform a particular task.

 The rating scales include references to particular concrete instances of human behavior thought to exemplify the ability under consideration and a particular degree of that ability. These concrete examples were intended to serve as "anchors" at intervals along the scale to assist the rater in using the instrument. These behavior anchors were developed based on research with groups of psychologists who devised the task anchors in group sessions and later participated in trying out the scales by using them to rate various tasks. The anchors are descriptions of various kinds of human activity and do not reflect tasks commonly performed by any particular occupational group.

 For example, anchors under the physical ability of stamina include, at the top of the seven-point scale, "swim the English Channel"; at a point mid-way between five and six on the scale of seven, "climb the stairs to the top of the Statue of Liberty"; and at the bottom of the scale, "walk to the corner grocery." Under gross body coordination the anchors are "do a skilled ballet dance like Swan Lake"; "a runner jumps a series of ten three-foot hurdles"; and "make a lay up shot in the basketball game." Under extent flexibility the anchors are "side show lady bends herself into a pretzel shape and other unusual positions"; "do a modern dance"; and, at the bottom of the scale, "reach for the control lever of a drill press." Using these scales the person completing the abilities analysis is asked to state "how much" of each ability is needed to do the task under study.

 In addition to the task anchors, the test instrument gives a definition of the ability, e.g.:

 
"Static Strength. This ability involves the amount of muscle force (power) used against an object to lift, push or pull the object. Force is used without stopping up to the amount needed to move the object. This ability can involve different muscle groups like the hand, arm, back, shoulder, and leg. This ability does not involve the use of force over a long time. This ability does not deal with the number of times the act is repeated." (Emphasis in original)

 Further, an effort is made in each instance to differentiate the ability under consideration from other abilities with which it might be confused. Thus, static strength is contrasted with explosive and dynamic strength and with stamina as follows:

 
"HOW STATIC STRENGTH IS DIFFERENT FROM OTHER ABILITIES:
 
Use force without stopping to lift, push or pull objects
 
vs.
 
Explosive Strength (2): Gather energy to move the body's own weight or objects with short bursts of force.
 
Use force to lift, push or pull objects
 
vs.
 
Dynamic Strength (3): Use muscle power (force) repeatedly or without stopping to hold up or move the body's own weight.
 
Does not involve the use of force over a long time
 
vs.
 
Stamina (4): Do physical work over a long time; involves heart and blood vessels resisting becoming tired."

 Further, the persons performing the abilities analysis are asked to complete a sheet entitled "comments" on which they are to state separately with respect to "usual tasks" (described as those performed every day or almost every day on the job) and with respect to "special tasks"-"what the worker does" and "under what circumstances the worker does it." It is principally based on these comments that defendants contend that the PAA was content validated as grounded in the important observable behaviors of firefighters.

 The Job Analysis of the Physical Requirements of the Firefighter

 In November 1973, AIR administered the PAA to 23 firemen and 12 fire officers. This use of the PAA was the first time that the instrument had ever been used in an actual analysis of an entire job as opposed to the analysis of a specific task. The firemen and officers were asked to rate the amount of each ability required by all of the usual tasks of their job and by all of the special tasks of their job on a scale of 0 to 7. Usual tasks were, as noted above, defined as tasks performed every day or every other day. Special tasks were defined as tasks performed less often. The PAA questionnaire also asked the raters to provide written comments, giving examples of both usual and special tasks which required each ability. These comments provide some idea of the various specific tasks which the raters were considering in answering the questions directed to the rather abstract abilities they were asked to rate.

 For some reason, most probably because of the difficulties presented by the complex analysis instrument, relatively few of the 35 firemen who did the PAA were able to think of special tasks-that is, ones performed on a less frequent basis than every day or almost every day on the job. As a result, noting that the rank ordering for special tasks would be influenced by very small differences in mean ratings and calling them "secondary ratings," AIR determined to rely on the ratings given for every day tasks and noted that the results for the special tasks analysis "should be viewed with caution and considered merely suggestive." *fn3" Using the responses given for usual tasks, the abilities were then ranked as follows, based on the mean ratings for both officers and firemen: Mean Score on Ability Scale of 7 Stamina 5.41 Static Strength 4.64 Explosive Strength 4.41 Gross Body Equilibrium 4.27 Extent Flexibility 4.26 Gross Body Coordination 4.04 Dynamic Strength 4.03 Dynamic Flexibility 3.74 Speed of Limb Movement 3.41 *fn4"

 The AIR effort was not only the first occasion on which an entire job was analyzed using the PAA; it was also the first time job incumbents, as opposed to professional scientists, were asked to perform the rather abstract abilities analysis. In all earlier uses of the test instruments to rate specific tasks, the ratings had been made by trained psychologists, familiar with the mechanisms of the analysis, who had at least some acquaintance with the definitions they were being asked to apply and some of whom had, in fact, participated in the preparation of the test anchors used in an effort to make the analysis concrete. Given the complexity of the rating scales and the nature of the task anchors, the analysis is clearly capable of producing a different result when used by different individuals with different backgrounds. Thus, the significance of an anchor for static strength (which is set at a level of 5.8 on a scale of 7) described as loading five full fifty-gallon drums into a truck may be quite different for a person who has done the task described than for a person who has not. In fact, there is considerable evidence that actual confusion and misuse of the instrument did occur.

 As already noted, a large number of respondents failed to find the selected abilities present at all in special firefighting tasks, i.e., those occurring less frequently than once every one or two days. Moreover, many of the same tasks were considered usual tasks by some respondents and special tasks by others. Thus, "overhauling using ladders," "ventilation," "lifting people to stretchers," "moving large refrigerator or furniture in fire building," "making rescue of person or persons of varying weights under adverse conditions," and "forcible entry" are all listed as special tasks by some respondents. Other respondents describe essentially the same tasks, e.g., "moving usual household items such as refrigerator in a time of heavy fire conditions," "overhauling at a fire," "needed when forcing entry through doors or walls under fire conditions," "moving heavy refrigerators, furniture, unconscious persons," "to remove person from smoke-filled room or apartment," "force doors, vent," as a part of usual operations.

 Moreover, many of the comments list the same activity or job behavior as an example of all or almost all of the abilities inquired about in the PAA questionnaire. For example, "functions at fire operations" and "stretching a hose" is given as an example of each of the given abilities in one fireman's comments. While this may reflect a correct understanding of the abilities being asked about (it is possible, for example, given the complexity of body movements involved in stretching a hose, to find at one point or another in the evolution an example of static strength, explosive strength, dynamic strength, stamina, extent flexibility, and gross body coordination), it is difficult to say, given the complexity of the example of job behavior offered in the comment, whether the example reflects a correct understanding of the ability or not. Nor is it clear that one has given concrete support for the degree of importance attributed to the ability when one has cited a complex job behavior involving to some unspecified degree the ability inquired about, but also involving other abilities.

 This point may be made clearer by examining the definition of dynamic strength given in the PAA, along with the contrasting definitions provided, and then considering a number of examples given for that ability in the comments of firemen.

 Dynamic strength is defined in the PAA instrument as follows:

 
"This ability involves the power of arm and trunk muscles to hold up or move the body's own weight repeatedly or at one time without stopping. This ability involves muscles resisting getting tired when having to repeatedly or without stopping to hold up or move the body's own weight." (Emphasis in original)

 Contrasts are then provided between dynamic strength and static strength (involving the use of force to lift, push or pull objects), explosive strength (involving short bursts of muscle force to move the body's own weight or objects), and stamina (defined as work over a long time, involving "heart and blood vessels resisting becoming tired").

 The following comments by firemen, listing job behaviors thought to exemplify dynamic strength, are taken in order from a list prepared by AIR from the firemen's comments:

 
"Pull hose up six flights in smoke, pull ceilings; overhauling operations; carry persons up or down stairs; to and from places.
 
"Advancing a line into a building, in heat and smoke. Rescue operations. (Underlined comments ...

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