The opinion of the court was delivered by: LASKER
Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith, Inc., ("M/L"), E.F. Hutton & Company, Inc., ("Hutton") and ACLI International Commodity Services, Inc. ("ACLI") ("the brokers") move pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. Pr. 12(b) (6) to dismiss Claims One through Five (the antitrust claims), Claim Six (Section 9(b) of the Commodity Exchange Act, 7 U.S.C. § 13(b)) and Claims Ten and Eleven
(common law breach of fiduciary duty), and pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. Pr. 12(f), to strike the demand for punitive damages. Commodity Exchange, Inc. and the Board of Trade of the City of Chicago ("the exchanges") also move pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. Pr. 12(b) (6) to dismiss the antitrust claims.
As to the brokers, the complaint alleges that they were "participating in the transactions and activities [of] the Hunts [and other defendants] with the intent and effect of raising the price of silver." (Complaint paras. 87, 93). The brokers contend that the only specific acts which they are alleged to have performed in connection with the conspiracy are lending money to the other defendants and providing them with trading assistance. Provision of ordinary financial services, they assert, does not constitute participation in a conspiracy. The brokers also contend that Minpeco's allegations as to market definition are too vague to permit a responsive pleading.
While the mere act of lending money to a conspirator does not cause one to be a co-conspirator, one who finances a conspiracy with the intent of participating in and aiding the conspiracy may be liable. Intent to further the conspiracy is alleged. (Complaint paras. 84, 93).
Defendants' primary contention is that Minpeco has failed to set forth facts sufficient to support its allegations of intent. (Memorandum of Hutton in Support of Motion to Dismiss at 51). In support of the proposition that Minpeco must set forth a threshold factual showing for its allegations, reliance is placed on such cases as Morgan v. Prudential Group, Inc., 81 F.R.D. 418 (S.D.N.Y. 1978) and Troyer v. Karcagi, 476 F. Supp. 1142 (S.D.N.Y. 1976), in which the question addressed was whether the complaint satisfied the requirements of Rule 9(b).
The standard for determining the sufficiency of the complaint is set forth by Fed. R. Civ. Pr. 8, which provides that a pleading shall contain "a short and plain statement of the claim showing that the pleader is entitled to relief." Defendants' argument that more than "notice pleading" should be required for antitrust complaints has been firmly rejected in this Circuit. In Nagler v. Admiral Corp., 248 F.2d 319 (2d Cir. 1957), the court, by Judge Charles Clark, a central draftsman of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, observed that:
"It is quite clear that the federal rules contain no special exceptions for antitrust cases. When the rules were adopted there was considerable pressure for separate provisions in patent, copyright, and other allegedly special types of litigation. Such arguments did not prevail; instead there was adopted a uniform system for all cases . . . 'To impose peculiarly stiff requirements in treble damage suits will be to frustrate the Congressional intent.'"
Id. at 323, quoting Package Closure Corp. v. Sealright Co., 141 F.2d 972, 978 (2d Cir. 1944).
The brokers' attack on the sufficiency of the monopolization claims is also founded on the alleged lack of specificity. For example, Hutton criticizes the complaint because
"Minpeco makes no effort to define specifically the boundaries of its purported market or markets . . . . Minpeco does not state whether 'silver' includes refined and unrefined silver, or whether it in addition includes unmined reserves."
(Memorandum of Hutton in Support of Motion to Dismiss at 58).
Rule 8 does not require that a plaintiff "define specifically the boundaries of its purported market." Minpeco has specified the market to consist of "interstate or foreign trade and commerce in silver and silver futures contracts" (Complaint para. 101). Silver is defined as "a commodity within the meaning of Section 2 of the Commodity Exchange Act" (Complaint para. 32), and silver futures contracts are defined in terms of the markets in which they are traded (Complaint paras. 3, 32). Questions of market definition can be narrowed and determined through the discovery process. However, as it stands, the market definition set forth in the complaint meets the requirements of Rule 8: it gives defendants notice of the claim against them.
The brokers' reliance on Heart Disease Research Foundation v. General Motors Corp., 463 F.2d 98 (2d Cir. 1972), is misplaced. The complaint in Heart Disease Research was described by the Court of Appeals as "sloppy," "scattershot" and "frivolously drawn." 463 F.2d at 100-101. None of those adjectives is applicable to the complaint here. Moreover, the Heart court did not rule that the facts alleged in support of the conspiracy claim were insufficient; it stated that " no facts [were] alleged." Id. (emphasis added).
Defendants' contention that they are unable to determine what they are charged with is difficult to accept. Regular newspaper readers know what this case is about. Moreover, the complaint sets forth the gist of the charge in a ...