The opinion of the court was delivered by: MOTLEY
Plaintiffs, owner and lessee of an office building located on the corner of 41st Street and Broadway in Manhattan, sue to enjoin condemnation of their building to make way for the proposed Forty-Second Street Development Project. Plaintiffs allege that the proposed taking of their building is neither for nor rationally related to a public purpose, and therefore amounts to an unconstitutional taking in violation of the fifth and fourteenth amendments. Plaintiffs bring their claim pursuant to 28 U.S.C. section 1983. All defendants have moved to dismiss on essentially three different theories: 1) failure to state a claim on which relief may be granted, 2) the doctrines of ripeness, abstention, and comity, and 3) improper joinder of parties. The court halted all discovery in this action pending resolution of the motions to dismiss, and ordered that these motions be addressed solely to the face the complaint. Therefore, since plaintiffs have had no opportunity to develop the factual basis of their complaint, the court has taken no notice of the factual affidavits submitted by defendants in support of these motions. For the reasons set forth below, however, defendants' motion to dismiss is granted.
This case is one of several to arise out of the large scale joint effort by the City and State to redevelop the Times Square area. For purposes of these motions, the factual background contained in the complaint will suffice.
On or about June 27, 1980, defendants Urban Development Corporation (UDC) and the City entered into a Memorandum of Understanding providing that the City and UDC would jointly prepare a plan and designate a developer to redevelop the Times Square vicinity, and that the UDC would have responsibility for implementation of the plan. In November, 1982, the UDC formed the Times Square Redevelopment Corporation (TSRC) as its subsidiary with primary responsibility for the development of Times Square.
Pursuant to the Memorandum of Understanding, the City and the TSRC have forumulated [formulated] the Forty-Second Street Development Project. The UDC has stated that the goals of the Project are "to eliminate blight on 42nd Street between Broadway and Eighth Avenue, to revitalize this vital crossroad and integrate it into the theatrical, cultural and commercial life of the city." Complaint paragraph 16.
The Project consists of several elements: Renovation of nine theaters on 42nd Street, subway station improvements, a new hotel, a large wholesale merchandise mart, and four new office towers ranging from 29 to 56 stories in height. One of the four towers, planned for the southern edge of the Project area, would be built partially on the site now occupied by the Rosenthal building. The site for the office towers will be assembled by the UDC through the use of the power of eminent domain. The actual construction of the buildings, however, will be undertaken by the designated private developer, defendant Park Tower Realty, of which defendant Klein is a principal. The buildings will be leased to Park Tower on a long-term basis and operated by Park Tower as private office buildings. In return, Park Tower will make contributions towards the subway and theater improvements.
Since the filing of the complaint in October, the City's Board of Estimate has approved the project and the UDC has published its findings in connection with the proposed condemnation, which could commence this spring. However, the condemnation may be delayed by the pendency of state and federal proceedings challenging the project.
Plaintiffs have owned and done business in their building for approximately 25 years. For the purposes of these motions, the court accepts as true plaintiffs' assertions that the building is structurally sound, attractively maintained, fully occupied, and in no way blighted. Plaintiffs maintain that since they do not contribute to the spread of blight, the condemnation of their building is not rationally related to the UDC's stated goal of combatting blight. Plaintiffs urge that the taking of their building therefore be declared unconstitutional on two different grounds: First, that the building is being condemned solely to make money for defendant Klein, which is alleged to be a constitutionally illegitimate private purpose, and second, that the use of condemnation to raise funds for subway and theater renovations is an unconstitutional substitution for taxation.
Defendants urge this court to abstain from reaching the merits of plaintiffs' claims on the basis that the controversy is not yet ripe, and under the doctrines of abstention and comity. Defendants suggest that proceedings challenging the Project's blight findings under section 207 of the State's Eminent Domain Procedure Law should be allowed to proceed prior to any federal court intervention. In addition, all defendants except the UDC, the TSRC, and Stern argue that they are improperly joined since they either lack the power of condemnation or will not exercise it in this case; the injunctive relief sought therefore cannot be had against them. Finally, all defendants urge that the complaint be dismissed on its face under the well established doctrine that the courts will not second-guess the contours of a public redevelopment plan so long as a legitimate public purpose for the plan exists.
Plaintiffs argue in turn that the imminence of state condemnation proceedings makes this case ripe for decision, that the availability of a state forum does not require the federal court to abstain from reaching a claim pursuant to section 1983, and that in any event the available state forum is inadquate [inadequate]. Plaintiffs further argue that the close cooperation between all defendants in formulating and executing the Project makes appropriate their joinder as defendants here. Finally, plaintiffs urge that notwithstanding the long line of cases requiring judicial deference to state redevelopment plans, this case nevertheless requires the court to intervene to prevent a taking entirely for private gain, which has never been approved in prior cases.
Defendants' procedural arguments can be disposed of summarily. Any doubt that objections to the condemnation of property for the Project presented a ripe controversy at the time of the filing of this complaint have been dispelled by the Project's approval by the Board of Estimate and the publication of the UDC's findings. Condemnation is imminent and so is plaintiffs' alleged loss. Moreover, assuming that plaintiffs have pleaded a substantial constitutional cause of action, this court sees no need to abstain in deference to possible state proceedings filed after the commencement of this action.
The argument of some defendants that they are not proper parties to this action gives the court more pause. However, while the relief sought here technically is only injunction of the condemnation of plaintiffs' building, this court believes that the concerted activity of all defendants in bringing about this project justifies their joinder here. See Archer Gardens, Ltd. v. Brooklyn Center Dev. Corp., 468 F. Supp. 609, 613 (S.D.N.Y. 1979) (private developer acting in concert with state officials is proper party to section 1983 action challenging alleged taking). If plaintiffs state a valid cause of action, it may be possible for them to show that all defendants acted under color of state law to deprive them of their rights. If there is ...