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September 11, 1985;


The opinion of the court was delivered by: BRIEANT


Brieant, J.

 The United States of America, representing the Republic of Italy, has requested the extradition of Dr. Francesco Pazienza pursuant to the 1983 Extradition Treaty between the United States and Italy (entered into force September 24, 1984) ("the Treaty"), U.S.T. and 18 U.S.C. § 3184. Italy seeks Dr. Pazienza's extradition on the basis of a warrant issued by a Milan court, charging him with conspiracy, and aiding and abetting the crime of "fraudulent bankruptcy." For the reasons that follow, this Court finds and concludes that the Government's evidence is sufficient to sustain the charges under the provisions of the Treaty, that no defense raised by Pazienza bars extradition, and that the requested person shall be certified to the United States Secretary of State for surrender to the government of Italy.

 On March 4, 1984, while voluntarily attending the second of two scheduled meetings with United States Customs agents in New York City, Dr. Pazienza was detained and informed that a warrant for his arrest had been authorized by the Department of Justice. Apparently with the consent of his then counsel, Dr. Pazienza was detained briefly without the benefit of a formally issued arrest warrant in this district. (Transcript of June 14, 1985, p. 114). On March 5, 1985, the Assistant United States Attorney in charge of this case, Mr. David Denton, swore to a Complaint for Provisional Arrest, averring that an arrest warrant for Dr. Pazienza had been issued in Italy on April 18, 1983 by the Investigating Judge of the Criminal Court of Milan.

 The United States also moved for the detention of Dr. Pazienza without bail, which motion was opposed by Dr. Pazienza and his attorneys. At the conclusion of a full adversarial hearing, this Court found that the Conditions for provisional arrest set forth in Article XII of the Treaty had been satisfied, and that Dr. Pazienza should not be released on bail. See Transcript dated March 7, 1985, Decision of the Court, pp. 104-120. The proof at that hearing showed that he had been a lammister of long standing, now holding a Seychelles passport and citizenship.

 Within the appropriate period of time, the Italian government provided formal documentation to support its request (Declaration of Laura Pollard, Esq., United States Department of State, and Attachments, dated April 19, 1985), and Mr. Denton filed a formal complaint for extradition. Thereafter on June 14 and July 15, 1985, this Court conducted an evidentiary hearing pursuant to § 3184.

 The Republic of Italy seeks Pazienza's return in order that he stand trial on two counts of fraudulent bankruptcy. This crime in essence is the offense of knowing and willful misappropriation of the assets of a company later adjudicated bankrupt. According to the April 18, 1983 Milan warrant, Count "A" charges that Pazienza, together with Mazzotta, Annibaldi, Carboni, Cassella and Pellicani collaborated to misapply or embezzle Six Billion Lire loaned by Banco Ambrosiano to an Italian company named Prato Verde. Roberto Calvi, the former president of Banco Ambrosiano, is also named in Count "A". However, Mr. Calvi could not be charged with any offense because of his intervening death. Mr. Calvi was, in fact, found hanged under the Blackfriars Bridge in London, a manner of death fraught with symbolism.

 Count "B" of the April 18, 1983 warrant charges that the same defendants conspired to defraud Banco Ambrosiano of the Six Billion Lire loaned to Prato Verde, with the deliberate intention of defaulting on the loan, and of using the funds for personal purposes and for the benefit of third parties. Essentially Count "A" is framed as a crime against Prato Verde, while Count "B" charges an offense causing detriment to Banco Ambrosiano.

 On February 25, 1985 the Milan court issued a superseding warrant to reflect the fact that Prato Verde had been adjudicated bankrupt in 1984. Under Italian law, it is mandatory to prosecute under the Bankruptcy Act once the allegedly defrauded company is found to be insolvent. Therefore, the former Count "A" which had charged misappropriation of assets belonging to Prato Verde (Italian Penal Code §§ 646, 110) merged into and was amended to become an offense under the Italian Bankruptcy Act of 1942, §§ 216, 219, 223. Count "B", relating to the bankrupt Banco Ambrosiano, had always been charged under the Bankruptcy Act, and remains unchanged by the superseding warrant of February 25, 1985.

 According to the explanation provided by the Milan court, although Pazienza is now charged with fraudulent bankruptcy in both counts of the new warrant, "the elements of the offense against the company Prato Verde and the proof relating to the offense remain the same as they did with respect to the former charge of misapplication [embezzlement] (Articles 110 and 646 of the Penal Code)."

 The provisions of the Bankruptcy Act under which Pazienza is charged state:

" Art. 216 (Fraudulent Bankruptcy)
Any entrepreneur adjudged bankrupt shall be subject to a term of imprisonment of 3 to 10 years when:
1. He diverted, concealed, disguised, destroyed or wasted, in while or in part, his own properties, or, for the purpose of causing his creditors to suffer a damage, he stated or acknowledged non-existent liabilities;
2. He stole, destroyed or falsified, in whole or in part, for the purpose of deriving an unjust profit for himself or others or for the purpose of causing his creditors to suffer a damage, the books or other book-keeping entries or kept them in such a manner as to render it impossible to reconstruct his estate or business.
* * *
Art. 219 - Aggravating and extenuating circumstances.
When the facts mentioned in Articles 216, 217 and 218 caused heavy financial damage, the punishments mentioned therein shall be increased by up to one half.
The punishments mentioned in the said articles shall be increased:
1. If the guilty person committed more than one of the facts mentioned in each of the said articles;
2. If the guilty person was not permitted by law to ...

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