The opinion of the court was delivered by: SWEET
Defendant BMC Industries, Inc. ("BMC") has brought a motion to dismiss the complaint for lack of venue or in the alternative to transfer this action to the United States District Court for the District of Minnesota pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 1404(a), 1406(a). For the following reasons the motion is denied.
This is an action brought by plaintiffs, the Prudential Insurance Company of America ("Prudential"), Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association of America ("TIAA"), State Street Bank and Trust Co. ("State Street") and Manufacturers Hanover Trust Company ("Manufacturers") under section 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the "Exchange Act") and under principles of common law for rescission of a Note Agreement dated December 13, 1984 (the "Note Agreement") between BMC and each of the plaintiffs. Plaintiffs purchased $30,000,000 of BMC's convertible notes (the "Notes") pursuant to the Note Agreement.
In addition to seeking rescission of the Note Agreement, plaintiffs also requested in their original complaint an injunction to prevent the execution of an amendment to BMC's ongoing credit agreement with The First National Bank of St. Paul (the "St. Paul Bank") and other members of a group of bank lenders. This claim for relief was a response to BMC's declaration to plaintiffs that it had entered into an amendment pursuant to which all of BMC's debt to the banks would become payable immediately upon any suit for rescission by plaintiffs. Before the court reviewed this injunctive request, BMC voluntarily agreed to waive the effectiveness of the amendment until July 1, 1986 and, therefore, St. Paul Bank was dismissed as a defendant in this action without prejudice.
The following facts relevant to venue and transfer are not disputed by the parties. The transaction at issue was initiated in August, 1984 when The First Boston Corporation ("First Boston"), an investment banking company, contacted each of the plaintiffs to inform them of BMC's intention to offer approximately $25,000,000 of convertible notes. Kevin Newman, a vice-president of First Boston based in its New York office, was a significant participant in the transaction, both by furnishing information to the plaintiffs and by assisting in negotiations on behalf of BMC. First Boston acted as BMC's financial advisor in connection with the issuance of the Notes. The BMC client officer at First Boston works at that firm's Chicago, Illinois office.
From August, 1984 through the closing of the transaction on December 13, 1984, the plaintiffs, BMC, and First Boston participated in general meetings and negotiations. One meeting occurred at the offices of BMC in St. Paul, Minnesota. The rest of the meetings leading up to the consummation of the sale appear to have occurred in New York City. One meeting occurred on October 2, 1984 in which BMC provided certain data at issue in the action. Further discussions were held in New York on November 15 and November 30, 1984 and were attended by Paul B. Burke ("Burke"), BMC's vice-president and general counsel. The Note Agreement was also executed in New York on December 13, 1984. One day after closing, Ryal Poppa, the chairman and chief executive officer of BMC, travelled to New York and disclosed additional information. At another meeting in New York on January 22, 1985, the plaintiffs met with First Boston and BMC representatives and demanded rescission.
Venue is proper in this district under section 27 of the Exchange Act, 15 U.S.C. § 78aa(1982). The facts indicate that several meetings between the principals and their agents occurred in New York City and moreover, the transaction was ultimately executed here. Therefore, this court's holding in Hadron, Inc. v. Vukcevic, [1982-83] Fed.Sec.L.Rep. (CCH) P 99,101 (S.D.N.Y. 1983), which was based on the absence of any activities in New York other than plaintiffs' representation by New York counsel, is inapplicable here.
BMC's alternative motion for a change of venue is made pursuant to 28 U.S.C. §§ 1404(a), 1406(a). Section 1404(a) permits a district court to transfer any civil action to any other district or division where it might have been brought for the convenience of parties and witnesses and in the interest of justice.
The plaintiffs' choice of forum must be given substantial weight unless the balance of convenience and the interest of justice weighs heavily in favor of the defendant. Factors Etc. v. Pro Arts, Inc., 579 F.2d 215 (2d Cir. 1978), cert. denied, 440 U.S. 908, 59 L. Ed. 2d 455, 99 S. Ct. 1215 (1979). Accordingly, the burden is on the defendant to establish that there should be a change of venue. City of New York v. General Motors Corp., 357 F. Supp. 327, 328 (S.D.N.Y. 1973), see Ross v. American Airlines, Inc., 83 Civ. 3718 (S.D.N.Y. Oct. 18, 1983) (requiring a "clear-cut showing"); 15 C. Wright, A. Miller and E. Cooper, Federal Practice and Procedure 244 (1976). The relevant factors are: convenience to the parties and witnesses; the relative ease of access to sources of proof; the availability of process to compel the presence of unwilling witnesses' the practical problems indicating that the case can be tried more expeditiously and inexpensively, and the interests of justice. Seven Star Shoe Co., Inc. v. Strictly Goodies, Inc., 83 Civ. 2904 (S.D.N.Y. March 21, 1984). See Van Dusen v. Barrack, 376 U.S. 612, 616, 11 L. Ed. 2d 945, 84 S. Ct. 805 (1964); Schneider v. Sears, 265 F. Supp. 257, 263 (S.D.N.Y. 1967).
An evaluation of the convenience of the parties and witnesses does not provide a clear-cut showing that this case would better be tried in Minnesota. Each of the two opposing sides has amply demonstrated that their employees with knowledge of the transaction and the relevant underlying facts would prefer to appear at a trial located in their home district. Donald Heitzler, a managing director of the Capital Markets Group of the Prudential Investment Corporation, headed the group at Prudential's New Jersey headquarters that participated in the purchase of the BMC notes and resides in New Jersey. Michael Fitzgerald, a director of the same Capital Market Group, attended several of the meetings and participated in negotiations regarding the Note Agreement; he also lives in the metropolitan New York area. Suzanne Walton and Daniel Nigro are a senior vice president and senior securities analyst, respectively, at TIAA's main office in New York City. These two witnesses also attended meetings and are prepared to testify about the Note Agreement transaction. BMC, on the other hand, has submitted the affidavit of Paul Burke who asserts that he and other executives at BMC will be greatly inconvenienced by having to testify in this district. Thus there is a sharp division ...