The opinion of the court was delivered by: STERLING JOHNSON, JR.
The Plaintiffs commenced this class action seeking declaratory and injunctive relief arising from the Government's actions against Haitians and Haitian Service Organizations following the military coup that overthrew the government of Jean-Bertrand Aristide on September 30, 1991.
The Complaint states the following causes of action: 1) First Claim for Relief alleges that the Haitian Service Organizations have been denied their First Amendment right of access to their clients on Guantanamo; 2) Second Claim for Relief alleges that the Haitian plaintiffs have been denied their statutory right to obtain and communicate with counsel in violation of 8 U.S.C. § 1362 and 8 C.F.R. § 208.9; 3) Third Claim for Relief states that the Haitian plaintiffs have been denied their constitutional rights to obtain and communicate with counsel in violation of the first and fifth Amendment; 4) Fourth Claim for Relief alleges that the Government failed to follow rulemaking procedures set forth in the Administrative Procedure Act ("APA"), 5 U.S.C. § 551, et. seq. in Initiating new policies and practices; 5) Fifth Claim for Relief charges the Government's with a "pattern and practice of intimidating and coercing plaintiffs, of discouraging and diminishing their rights to asylum and to alternative-country placement, and of willfully relying upon false information and prejudicial biases to effect forced repatriations and to deny individual asylum claims on their merits are arbitrary and capricious, an abuse of discretion, not in accordance with law, and reviewable by this court" under the APA, 5 U.S.C. § 701 et. seq.; 6) Sixth Claim for Relief states that the Government has a mandatory duty not to return political refugees to a country where they will face persecution and to provide adequate procedures to examine colorable asylum claims under Article 33 of the United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, the Refugee Act of 1980, the Immigration and Nationality Act ("INA"), 8 U.S.C. § 1253(h), Executive Order 12324, the U.S.-Haiti Agreement, Agreement Effected by Exchange of Notes, signed at Port-au-Prince September 23, 1981, and the Immigration and Naturalization Service ("INS") guidelines; and 7) Seventh Claim for Relief alleges that the Government has "denied plaintiffs the equal protection of the laws by creating and operating an unauthorized, separate and unequal, asylum track for Haitians only."
The Government moves to the dismiss the Complaint pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. P. ("Rule") 12(b)(6) for failure to state a claim. For the reasons stated below, the Government's Motion to Dismiss is granted in part and denied in part.
On March 17, 1992, the Plaintiffs filed an order to show cause with supporting affirmations as an "emergency matter" on this Court's Miscellaneous docket which was subsequently referred to the civil docket and assigned to this judge. That same afternoon this court heard oral argument from both Plaintiffs' and Government's counsel on Plaintiffs' application for a temporary restraining order ("TRO") and their demand for expedited discovery. The following morning, this Court heard more oral argument and the Plaintiffs filed a complaint seeking declaratory and injunctive relief. During oral argument, the Government asserted that Plaintiffs were wholly precluded from bringing this suit by the prior litigation in Haitian Refugee Center, Inc. v. Baker.2
This Court took the matter under advisement and requested that the parties brief certain issues related to the TRO. The Government filed their Memorandum in Opposition to Plaintiffs' Motion for a Temporary Restraining Order, a Motion to Dismiss pursuant to Rule 12(b)(6) for failure to state a claim, and a Motion for Rule 11 Sanctions on March 20, 1992.
Plaintiffs filed reply papers on March 23, 1992. After reviewing the papers, the Court found that the Plaintiffs' papers raise sufficient questions of law and fact to conclude that the Baker litigation did not entirely preclude the present action and issued a TRO on March 27, 1992.
Five days later the Court held a hearing on Plaintiff's application for a preliminary injunction. On April 6, 1992, the Court issued a preliminary injunction after finding that the Plaintiffs had made a showing of irreparable harm and a likelihood of succeeding on the merits. The court specifically concluded that: 1) the Government's denial of access to the Haitian Service Organization appears to be a content based restriction on speech; 2) the statutory right to counsel under 8 U.S.C. § 1362 and 8 C.F.R. § 208.9 does not extend to the Haitian aliens beings detained on Guantanamo; and 3) the Screened In Plaintiffs are entitled to the protection of the Fifth Amendment. In addition, the Court ruled that the Screened Out Plaintiffs represented by Iris Vilnor was bound by the outcome of Baker.
The Government filed an appeal from this Court's April 15, 1992 order clarifying the relief granted in its April 6, 1992 Memorandum and Order on April 18, 1992. Four days later the Supreme Court granted the Government's application for a stay of this order pending the Second Circuit's disposition of the appeal. On June 10, 1992, the Second Circuit affirmed and modified this Court's April 6th preliminary injunction in Haitian Centers Council, Inc. v. McNary, 969 F.2d 1326 (2d Cir. 1992). Without addressing the First Amendment claim of the Haitian Service Organizations, the Court of Appeals agreed that there were serious questions going to the merits of the Screened In Plaintiffs' Fifth Amendment claims. On September 23, 1992, the Government filed a petition seeking certiorari with the United States Supreme Court.
While awaiting a decision from the Court of Appeals on the appeal from the first injunction, the Government substantially altered its policy toward Haitian refugees fleeing the political upheaval in Haiti. On May 24, 1992, the President issued an Executive Order directing the United States Coast Guard to return any Haitian interdicted beyond the territorial waters of the United States directly to Haiti without being afforded the opportunity to undergo INS refugee screening. Plaintiffs quickly moved on Order to Show Cause for a temporary restraining order pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. P. 65 restraining the Government from acting pursuant to the May 24th Executive Order.
At a hearing on May 29, 1992, the Plaintiffs argued that the new policy violated Section 243(h) of the INA, Article 33 of the United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1981 U.S.-Haiti Executive Agreement. On June 6, 1992, the ...