The opinion of the court was delivered by: JACK B. WEINSTEIN
Defendant's motion to disqualify the trial judge is denied. The court net on the record with named plaintiff and several other DES plaintiffs and at numerous times with counsel for both sides together and separately who revealed all of the prospective evidence in these cases in great detail. These conferences were conducted in the court's role as settlement judge. There is no basis for an objective observer to question the court's neutrality. There is no appearance of partiality. Disqualification is not warranted.
These two cases were recently consolidated for trial. They stem from the ingestion of the drug diethylstilbestrol ("DES"), a synthetic estrogen, decades ago. See In re DES Cases, 789 F. Supp. 552, 558-59 (E.D.N.Y. 1992). Plaintiffs' mothers each allegedly took DES to prevent a miscarriage.
Plaintiff Suzanne Bilello, a resident of New York State, alleges that as a result of her prenatal exposure to DES in 1955-1956 she has developed abnormalities of the reproductive tract and infertility. Plaintiff Marie Theoret, a Canadian citizen, claims that she developed a form of vaginal cancer as a result of her exposure to the drug in 1956-1957. There has been extensive motion practice and discovery in these cases. They are ready for trial.
At one time more than five hundred DES cases were pending against scores of defendants in New York State alone in federal and state courts. Since it was estimated that individual trials of these cases would have required more than fifty judge-years and thousands of jurors, a Special Master was jointly appointed for the state and federal cases to assist the parties in settling the cases. In re New York County DES Litigation, 142 F.R.D. 58 (E.D.N.Y. 1992). Settlement of the state cases involving this defendant was made more difficult because orders to consolidate state cases for trial were appealed and have remained undecided for some time.
There has been extraordinary cooperation between the state and federal courts and the among the parties to the litigation in connection with settlement negotiations. Through the efforts of the Special Master, Kenneth R. Feinberg, Esq., about half of the cases have been settled. Many defendants have entered into global settlements with all plaintiffs. Other cases are currently in negotiations.
In May and June of 1992, this court, in its settlement role, met in chambers on four occasions, on the record, with plaintiffs' counsel in the instant case, a number of DES daughters and one DES son as well as a number of family members. These were representative plaintiffs, engaged in settlement negotiations, who desired to share their DES experiences with the court, to express their views about the litigation and to hear from the court how the cases might be resolved without trial. At the time of these meetings no DES cases were pending before the federal court because those that had been pending had been tried or settled. This court, in cooperation with New York State Supreme Court Justice Ira Gammerman, was continuing to assist in settling all state cases.
The women recounted tragic stories of how DES had affected their lives. Helene G., a DES mother, lost her eighteen year old daughter to cancer. Thirty-eight year old Charlotte L. told of countless surgeries in twenty-four years and more than eight years of infertility treatments with medical costs exceeding $ 113,000. Deena H. described her fear at learning that she had a recurrence of clear cell cancer, six years after she was told she was cured. She described the pain and humiliation of the invasive procedures she has been subjected to in attempting a permanent cure. Margaret B. recounted how at barely nineteen she discovered she had vaginal cancer. Nine years later she developed lymphedema which caused her body to swell to such gross proportions that she was unable to sit or stand. She described her humiliation at being deposed about her sexuality. Susan H. described the gynecological problems she has been experiencing since the age of fourteen. As a result of developing vaginal cancer at age twenty-one, she had a radical hysterectomy and vaginectomy. Because her vagina was reconstructed with her colon, she had to catheterize herself daily. Her bout with vaginal cancer has resulted in three surgeries and ten hospitalizations. She was dropped by one health insurer. The insurance she currently maintains at extremely high premiums gives little protection. She is infertile and lives in constant fear of a recurrence of cancer.
These were but a sample of the stories that the court heard during those sessions. In addition, the court received letters from several DES victims, some of which were read into the record. Each letter was acknowledged by the court. Each was filed and docketed.
The court explained to the participants some of the problems associated with DES litigation such as those associated with causation. The court also outlined the law of New York respecting market share (see Hymowitz v. Eli Lilly & Co., 73 N.Y.2d 487, 541 N.Y.S.2d 941, 539 N.E.2d 1069 (Ct. App.), cert. denied sub nom. Rexall Drug Co. v. Tigue, 493 U.S. 944, 107 L. Ed. 2d 338, 110 S. Ct. 350 (1989)) and the extension of the statute of limitations (see N.Y. CPLR 214-c). The women were informed of the difficulty in bringing cases to trial because of lack of judicial resources and of the courts' efforts to settle the cases. The court expressed regret that the law was not in a position to help establish a fund to benefit those who suffer from DES exposure, as requested by some of those present, similar to the funds established for victims of asbestos, Agent Orange and the Dalkon Shield intra-uterine device.
The court maintained its neutrality at all times. It noted the importance of giving due process to both plaintiffs and defendant drug companies. Above all, the court emphasized the desirability that these cases be settled so that plaintiffs could put the matter behind them and get on with their lives.
At the close of the May 27 meeting, a woman whose name is recorded in the transcript as "Susan Bill" recounted her experiences as a DES daughter, including her ever-present fear of developing clear cell cancer and her inability to have biological children. The woman referred to as Susan Bill is, it is stipulated, is the plaintiff, Suzanne Bilello, in the instant case. She had also submitted two letters to the court.
The May 27 meeting was reported on Newsday. See Pamela Newkirk, Victims of DES Testify, Newsday, May, 28, 1992 at 6. The article described the court's having listened intently and sympathetically to "wrenching stories of cancer and infertility." Id. The reporter characterized the session as providing an opportunity for the women to "put their ...