The opinion of the court was delivered by: CONSTANCE BAKER MOTLEY
DEFENDANTS' MOTION FOR SUMMARY JUDGMENT
Plaintiff was first employed as a caseworker by New York City Human Resources Administration ("Human Resources") in August 1988. He was assigned to the Division of Adoption and Foster Care Services (DAFCS), Centralized Services, of the HRA. DAFCS is responsible for evaluating prospective parents and foster parents, which requires, among other matters, personal visits by caseworkers to perform home studies and to personally interview applicants and their references. In DAFCS several units perform various services. These units are Inquiry/Recruitment, which handles the initial inquiries from prospective applicants; Adoption/interstate Compact (unit 703), which is responsible for adoption home studies, interstate adoption and foster care home studies and special adoption and foster care home studies; Placement/Coordination, which oversees the placement of children under the auspices of DAFCS; and Foster Care/Home Finding (units 704 and 705), which assess prospective foster parents. DAFCS was under the supervision of Site Director Constance Weinberg.
Because the home studies reports were ultimately submitted to Family Court in connection with adoption or foster care proceedings, these reports needed to be done in a comprehensible, professional manner.
During the first two years of his employment, plaintiff received very good performance evaluations. In September 1990, plaintiff was transferred to unit 703 (adoption unit) and given the title of "acting" supervisor I position. At the same time twelve other case workers were placed in "acting" positions and performed "out-of-title" duties. Acting supervisors received no additional pay or benefits. Unit 703 required special investigatory and creative problem solving skills. In January 1991, Myra Berman, who is Caucasian, became the unit supervisor for the adoption unit and plaintiff's direct supervisor. Berman's supervisor was Doris Ayala who is Hispanic. The employees of unit 703 at the time of plaintiff's assignment included plaintiff; Donald Williams, an African-American; Brahaspatie Ramsaroop, an East-Indian-Guyanese; and Ira Sohmer, a Caucasian. All of these employees had the title of "supervisor I." In this unit, all employees with the title of "supervisor I" performed caseworker duties, rather than supervision of a unit, which is the traditional duty of a supervisor. However, they carried a higher caseload than caseworkers in other units (i.e., 15 cases rather than 10).
Although plaintiff was generally a good employee, he frequently made errors in his written work, particularly concerning articles, word usage, and use of prepositions. He also demonstrated comprehension problems in gathering and recording information presented to him by English-speaking clients. Plaintiff concedes that he makes grammatical errors in the course of his work. When Berman gave plaintiff a performance evaluation for the period of October 31, 1991 to January 30, 1992, she gave plaintiff an overall rating of good but she also gave him a marginal rating in his verbal and written skills. The subsequent performance evaluation given for the period of January 31, 1992 to April 10, 1992 had him upgraded from marginal to good in his verbal and written communication skills. At about this same period of time, Berman also evaluated Donald Williams, an African-American and gave similar criticism of Mr. Williams' deficits in communication skills.
On March 30, 1992, Child Welfare Administration Executive Deputy Director Robert Little ended the agency policy of permitting employees to perform "out-of-title" work. As a result, all thirteen workers in "acting" titles, including plaintiff and Berman, were restored to their original civil service titles effective April 10, 1992. In total, 5 Hispanics, 2 whites, 6 African-Americans were reassigned to their former titles. Along with the reassignment, some of these employees were transferred to other units. Plaintiff, himself, was transferred to unit 704, based on the Little directive and Weinberg's belief that plaintiff could perform better in a unit where the written work would not be as demanding on his limited writing skills. Plaintiff's direct supervisor, Berman, did not participate in the decision. In this new unit, plaintiff received the same salary and benefits as he had received in unit 703. The supervisor of unit 704 was Hispanic and following plaintiff's transfer one black and Hispanic caseworker were assigned to unit 703, plaintiff's old unit. On July 7, 1992, plaintiff filed an EEOC complaint and on September 30, 1993, the EEOC found no probable cause to believe that plaintiff had experienced discrimination.
Plaintiff alleges that defendants' reasons for the transfer are merely a pretext. He alleges, also, that his transfer from the adoption unit, unit 703, was a demotion because it was a more prestigious unit than unit 704. He adds that defendants transferred him because he is Hispanic and that he should have been allowed to remain in the unit. Plaintiff claims that Berman began to criticize his English skills even before he submitted any written work to her. Furthermore, plaintiff claims that Berman told him his problem was "cultural" and that when he was being transferred Weinberg, Berman's supervisor, told him that he and his new Hispanic supervisor "will understand each other better".
I. Standard for Summary Judgment
"When a motion for summary judgment is made, and supported as provided in this rule, an adverse party may not rest upon the mere allegations or denials of the adverse party's pleadings, but the adverse party's response, by affidavits, or as otherwise provided in this rule, must set forth specific facts showing that there is a genuine issue for trial." Fed.R.Civ.P. 56 (e). A Title VII plaintiff cannot "defeat a motion for summary judgment by offering purely conclusory allegations of discrimination." Meiri v. Dacon, 759 F.2d 989, 998 (2d Cir.), cert. den. 474 U.S. 829, 88 L. Ed. 2d 74, 106 S. Ct. 91 (1985); McLee v. Chrysler Corp., No. 94-8014, 38 F.3d 67, 1994 U.S. App. LEXIS 28376 (2d Cir. October 12, 1994) (Second Circuit reaffirmed the availability of summary judgment in discrimination cases); Johnson v. Frank, 828 F. Supp. 1143, 1147 (S.D.N.Y. 1993) (Motley, J.).
II. Applicable Statutes and Burden of Proof
Title VII provides that "it shall be an unlawful employment practice for an employer--(1) to discharge any individual with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment, because of such individual's race, color, religion, sex, or national origin." 42 U.S.C. § 2000e-2(a)(1) (1993). While an employer is not permitted to terminate or demote an employee because of that person's national origin, this statute does not preclude such action for legitimate business purposes. Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins, 490 U.S. 228, 239, 104 L. Ed. 2d 268, 109 S. Ct. 1775 (1989).
The legal framework for resolving discrimination claims is well established, and is principally set forth in McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. Green, 411 U.S. 792, 36 L. Ed. 2d 668, 93 S. Ct. 1817 (1973) and Texas Dep't of Community Affairs v. Burdine, 450 U.S. 248, 67 L. Ed. 2d 207, 101 S. Ct. 1089 (1981). Within this procedural framework, plaintiff bears, at all times, the ultimate burden of proving that he was the victim of discrimination. St. Mary's Honor Center v. Hicks, 125 L. Ed. 2d 407, 113 S. Ct. 2742 (1993). First, plaintiff must prove a prima facie case of illegal discrimination by a preponderance of the evidence. McDonnell Douglas Corp., 411 U.S. at 802; Russo v. Trifari, Krussman & Fishel, Inc., 837 F.2d 40, 43 (2d Cir. 1988); Rovtar v. Union Bank of Switzerland, 852 F. Supp. 180, 183 (S.D.N.Y. 1994) (Motley, J.). Second, if plaintiff succeeds in proving the prima facie case, then defendants must articulate a legitimate, non-discriminatory reason for the employment action. Id. Third, once defendants give a legitimate, non-discriminatory explanation for the employment action, plaintiff must then prove by a preponderance of the evidence that defendants' explanation was a pretext to ...