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NEW YORK v. REEBOK INT'L LTD.

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK


October 20, 1995

THE STATE OF NEW YORK, by ATTORNEY GENERAL DENNIS C. VACCO, et al., Plaintiff, against REEBOK INTERNATIONAL LTD., et al., Defendants.

The opinion of the court was delivered by: KOELTL

OPINION AND ORDER

 JOHN G. KOELTL, District Judge:

 Fifty States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and The Virgin Islands (the "States") have brought this action on their own behalf and as parens patriae on behalf of their residents to obtain monetary and equitable relief under federal and state antitrust laws. The defendants in this action are Reebok International LTD. ("Reebok"), a Massachusetts corporation, and its wholly-owned subsidiary, The Rockport Company ("Rockport"). These companies manufacture and distribute Reebok and Rockport brand footwear to dealers located throughout the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.

 The States have entered into a settlement with the defendants pursuant to a Settlement Agreement which is subject to court approval under 15 U.S.C. § 15c(c). The Court preliminarily approved the Settlement on June 5, 1995.

 Following preliminary approval, notice of the Settlement was given to affected consumers by nationwide publication during the period from July 9-14, 1995. Consumers were advised of the existence and terms of the proposed Settlement and were given the opportunity to request further detailed information relating to the terms and disposition of the Settlement. Affected consumers were apprised of their right to either exclude their claims ("opt out" provision) or to object to the terms of the Settlement by September 8, 1995. *fn1" Presently before the Court is the joint motion of all parties for final approval of the Settlement.

 The States' Complaint alleges that the Reebok and Rockport companies participated in a conspiracy to fix, raise, maintain, or stabilize the retail prices at which certain Reebok and Rockport brand products were sold to the public.

 The Complaint alleges that beginning in 1990, the defendants solicited agreements with dealers to set the minimum sale price for certain Reebok and Rockport products. In alleged furtherance of that conspiracy, defendant Reebok implemented its "Centennial Pricing Policy" in January 1993, which set forth minimum retail prices on certain of its Reebok brand footwear, including the highly promoted "Prestige" products. In July 1993, defendant Rockport instituted a similar pricing policy, entitled the "Marathon Program," which set forth minimum retail prices for certain Rockport brand footwear models. The Complaint further alleges that to effectuate these pricing policies, the defendants met with certain of their large retail accounts to discuss the terms and conditions of the policies and solicited and obtained agreements from these dealers not to advertise or sell below the minimum retail prices set forth in those policies. The Complaint alleges that Reebok and Rockport sales representatives monitored the retail prices at which Reebok and Rockport dealers advertised and sold certain products. When Reebok and Rockport representatives discovered that certain dealers were selling certain products at prices lower than the minimum retail prices set by the policies, these sales representatives solicited and obtained agreements from dealers to raise the selling prices to conform to the minimum prices Reebok and Rockport established.

 The States assert that as a result of the resale price maintenance conspiracy, the purchase prices of certain Reebok and Rockport footwear products were fixed, raised, maintained, or stabilized at artificial, noncompetitive levels and that price competition among authorized dealers for the sale of Reebok and Rockport products to the public was thereby restrained. The States maintain that as a result of this conspiracy, purchasers of certain Reebok and Rockport products paid more for these products than they would have paid in a competitive market.

 The plaintiffs have submitted the affidavit of Dr. Gary J. Dorman, an expert economist, in support of the Settlement. Dr. Dorman estimates that approximately 1,343,978 pairs of Reebok shoes were most affected by the Centennial Policy during the Reebok class damage period, January 1, 1993 through December 31, 1993, resulting in an average overcharge of $ 3.89 per pair, for a total of $ 5.2 million. (Dorman Aff. PP 15-17.) The Marathon policy during the Rockport class damage period of July 1, 1993 through December 31, 1993 most affected approximately 321,800 pairs of Rockport shoes at an average overcharge of $ 3.77 per pair for damages of $ 1,213,186. (Id. at P 19.) The total damages asserted in the evidence by the plaintiffs is $ 6.44 million. (Id. at P 21.)

 The defendants vigorously contest liability and assert that if this case went to trial, the plaintiffs would be unable to establish violations of the antitrust laws. Moreover, the defendants contend that the plaintiffs would be unable to establish that the policies in question had an actual market impact. The defendants point to factors such as the fact that when the disputed Reebok policies went into effect the average price for Reebok products covered by the disputed policy fell while the prices of certain non-Reebok products rose. While the same data is not available for Rockport, the defendants' expert economist Dr. Jerry A. Hausman concluded in his affidavit that "any impact resulting from the Rockport pricing policy was also likely to be negligible." (Hausman Aff. at P 8.)

 The Settlement Agreement requires the defendants to pay the plaintiffs $ 9.5 million, of which $ 8 million will be used for distribution in lieu of direct consumer restitution and $ 1.5 million will be used to cover costs of administration and attorneys' fees, including the cost of the published notice to the class of the proposed settlement.

 The Settlement Agreement requires Reebok to pay $ 8 million into a Settlement Account which will be used to fund a distribution in lieu of consumer restitution. The States participate in the Settlement Account on a pro rata basis based on the percentage of the United States population located in each State. Each State may elect to receive its pro rata share of this sum as a monetary payment or in Reebok products. Arizona and Puerto Rico have elected to receive their share of the Settlement distribution in Reebok products and, according to the Settlement Agreement, will receive products with a suggested retail price twice the amount they would have received in a monetary distribution. The remaining States will receive a monetary distribution for public and non-profit and/or charitable organizations with express conditions ensuring that the funds will be used for various athletic facilities, equipment, or services.

 In connection with the approval of the Settlement, each of the States has submitted to the Court a detailed plan for distribution of its share of the Settlement fund. For example, the $ 560,857.00 that the State of New York will receive will be divided among 58 separate organizations including the Association for Children with Down Syndrome, the New York State Special Olympics, and numerous Boys and Girls Clubs and Police Athletic Leagues throughout the State. The organizations must in turn submit quarterly reports outlining how the funds have been spent in accordance with the limitations on use in the Settlement Agreement.

 The State of California, for another example, proposes distributing approximately $ 360,000 to refurbish or renovate fields, basketball courts, tracks, and tennis courts operated by various public and non-profit, charitable entities, including municipal tennis courts; $ 100,000 to be used by the Governor's Council on Physical Fitness, a non-profit, voluntary agency organized under state law that is responsible for administering sports programs for high schools throughout California; and approximately $ 440,000 to be used by the California Interscholastic Federation ("CIF"), a non-profit voluntary agency organized under state law that administers sports programs throughout the state. In compliance with the terms of the Settlement Agreement and subject to approval of the California Attorney General, CIF would distribute the funds to schools, city parks and recreation departments, and other community youth groups.

 The Settlement also provides for substantial equitable relief. Reebok agrees to an injunction providing that for five years it will not violate specified provisions of the antitrust laws and it will notify its dealers that they are free to advertise and price Reebok products independently at whatever level they choose.

 15 U.S.C. § 15c(c) requires court approval of the settlement of a parens patriae antitrust suit, but it does not specify the standards required for approval. Courts generally look to the standards used in approving class action settlements under Rule 23(e) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. A settlement will be approved it if is fair, reasonable, and adequate. See State of New York ex rel. Koppell v. Keds Corp., No. 93-6708, 1994 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 3362, 1994 WL 97201 (S.D.N.Y. Mar. 21, 1994) (standards for approving parens patriae antitrust settlements); States of New York and Maryland, et al. v. Nintendo of America, Inc., 775 F. Supp. 676, 680 (S.D.N.Y. 1991) (same); In re Panasonic Consumer Electronics Antitrust Litig., No. 89-0368, 1989 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 6274, 1989 WL 63240, at *2 (S.D.N.Y. June 5, 1989) (same); Maywalt v. Parker & Parsley Petroleum Co., 67 F.3d 1072, 1995 WL 604576 (2d Cir. 1995) (standards for approving class action settlements); Weinberger v. Kendrick, 698 F.2d 61, 73 (2d Cir. 1982), cert. denied sub nom. Lewy v. Weinberger, 464 U.S. 818, 78 L. Ed. 2d 89, 104 S. Ct. 77 (1983) (same).

 In assessing the fairness of a settlement, courts consider whether the settlement was the result of good-faith bargaining at arms-length by experienced counsel, and whether there is any evidence of collusion. See Maywalt v. Parker & Parsley Petroleum Co., 864 F. Supp. at 1427, aff'd, 16 F.3d 414, 1995 WL 604576 (2d Cir. Oct. 13, 1995); Keds, 1994 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 3362, 1994 WL 77201, at *2; In re Panasonic, 1989 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 6274, 1989 WL 63240, at *2; Nintendo, 775 F. Supp. at 680-81; City of Detroit v. Grinnell Corp., 495 F.2d 448, 463-66 (2d Cir. 1974).

 Here, both the States and the defendants are represented by vigorous, competent, and experienced counsel. While the parties have settled this lawsuit at the outset, this settlement was the result of a thorough investigation. The States advised the Court in their papers and at oral argument that the Settlement Agreement dated April 25, 1995 was reached only after an intense two-year investigation that began in February 1993. This investigation included reviewing documents produced pursuant to subpoenas to the defendants and dealers throughout the country, as well as interviews and statements under oath. There is in fact no hint of collusion in this case. In addition, all counsel believe that the Settlement is fair and reasonable. The Court finds that the Settlement Agreement was reached as a result of good faith, arms-length bargaining, without collusion. Such findings support a presumption that the settlement is fair. See Weinberger, 698 F.2d at 74 (lack of evidence of collusion, experience of counsel, and extensive discovery preceding settlement "are important indicia of the propriety of settlement negotiations"); Maywalt, 864 F. Supp. at 1427 (finding settlement is fair given experience of counsel, substantial discovery, and no evidence of bad faith); Keds, 1994 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 3362, 1994 WL 97201, at *2 (upholding settlement given good-faith bargaining between experienced counsel and "intense and extended" negotiations); Nintendo, 775 F. Supp. at 680-81 (deeming settlement fair because it was reached "only after spirited arms-length negotiations by the parties"); In re Panasonic, 1989 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 6274, 1989 WL 63240, at *2 (settlement agreements can be presumed fair if they are the result of good faith arms-length negotiations and the Court sees no indications of collusion).

 To determine whether a settlement is reasonable and adequate, a court must consider the following factors:

 

(1) the relative strength of the plaintiffs' case on the merits; (2) the existence of any difficulties of proof or strong defenses the plaintiffs are likely to encounter if the case goes to trial; (3) the anticipated duration and expense of additional litigation; (4) the solvency of the defendants and the likelihood of recovery on a litigated judgement; and (5) the degree of opposition to the settlement.

 Keds, 1994 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 3362, 1994 WL 77201, at *2; Nintendo, 775 F. Supp. at 681. As in Keds, each of these factors, with the exception of the fourth, argues strongly for approval of the settlement. Id.

 If this case did not settle, it would drag on for years as the parties conducted discovery throughout the country. Attorneys' fees would escalate exponentially and could potentially reduce the amounts that the defendants would pay in settlement. The trial would be lengthy and complex because of the nationwide scope of the alleged activities.

 While the plaintiffs assert they have a strong case, the defendants deny that the facts and the law would permit recovery. In particular, the defendants contend that there was no coercion in this case and that, in any event, the pricing policies at issue did not have an effect on prices. The defendants rely on the permissible scope of conduct under cases such as United States v. Colgate & Co., 250 U.S. 300, 63 L. Ed. 992, 39 S. Ct. 465 (1919), and Monsanto Co. v. Spray-Rite Serv. Corp., 465 U.S. 752, 79 L. Ed. 2d 775, 104 S. Ct. 1464 (1984). "Under Colgate, the manufacturer can announce its resale prices in advance and refuse to deal with those who fail to comply. And a distributor is free to acquiesce in the manufacturer's demand in order to avoid termination." Monsanto, 465 U.S. at 761. The fact that the retailer conformed to the manufacturer's suggested price is not proof that the manufacturer unlawfully "agreed" with a retailer on the prices the retailer would charge. See id. at 764 n.9 ("The concept of a 'meeting of the minds' or 'a common scheme' in a distributor-termination case includes more than a showing that the distributor conformed to the suggested price."); The Jeanery, Inc. v. James Jeans, Inc., 849 F.2d 1148, 1154 (9th Cir. 1988); Isaksen v. Vermont Castings, Inc., 825 F.2d 1158, 1164 (7th Cir. 1987), cert. denied, 486 U.S. 1005, 100 L. Ed. 2d 193, 108 S. Ct. 1728 (1988). As Judge Posner has explained:

 

The mere fact of adherence to suggested retail prices does not establish agreement to adhere to them. If adherence alone could prove an agreement to adhere, the Colgate privilege--which allows a supplier to "coerce" the dealers' adherence by threatening to cut him off if he doesn't adhere, and which was strongly reaffirmed in Monsanto. . . would be nugatory. . . . If a manufacturer distributes a price list, together with an announcement that he will cut off dealers who sell below the list prices, and dealers adhere to those prices because they don't want to be cut off, there is a realistic sense in which the threat of termination has induced the dealers to agree not to cut prices--to agree, in other words, to fix prices. That is the argument against Colgate. Monsanto rejects it.

 Isaksen, 825 F.2d at 1164.

 The States' case, therefore, would necessarily be risky, and, in any event, would require lengthy and expensive discovery and trial. As Judge Haight explained in approving the settlement in the Keds case, in words which are equally applicable here:

 

In the case at bar, [the defendant] has contended from its inception that its suggested retail pricing policy, with only the most limited exceptions, constituted unilateral and consequently lawful conduct under Colgate and its progeny. Plaintiffs would have to show otherwise. They would have to prove illicit agreements on a state-by-state and retailer-by-retailer basis. The hydra-headed litigation would be complex and costly and its outcome (or outcomes) by no means certain. There are also difficult questions in respect of the quantification of damages.

 1994 WL 97201, at *3.

 Balanced against these difficulties is the substantial amount of the Settlement here. Even subtracting the substantial costs of administration, the $ 8.0 million settlement fund is in excess of the actual damages estimates by the plaintiffs' expert economist.

 Finally, as Judge Haight commented in Keds, the method of distribution in this case is "pragmatic and sensible in the circumstances." 1994 WL 97201, at *3; see also State of New York v. Dairylea Cooperative, Inc., No. 81-1891, 1985-2 Trade Cas. (CCH) P66,675, 1985 WL 1825, at *2 (S.D.N.Y. June 26, 1985) (determining that an "appropriate and realistic distribution" of settlement sum involving alleged overcharging for milk is the dispersion of funds to schools for nutritional purposes). Indeed, the method of settlement is utterly fair. Unlike cases where there are warranty cards returned by consumer class or other similar documentation, it would be difficult in this case to locate individual purchasers. See, e.g., Keds, 1994 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 3362, 1994 WL 97201, at *3 (noting that it would be "difficult if not impossible to trace individual consumers" given the absence of warranty cards). The class covered by the settlement consists of purchasers of Reebok and Rockport footwear for the period January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1994, although the States maintain that they have only found evidence of sporadic instances with little or no effect on prices except for the two pricing policies and class damage periods described above, and even in those damage periods, only a fraction of the shoes actually sold, according to the plaintiffs' economist, were sold at artificially inflated prices. Thus, the number of potential consumers would be in the millions, although those who were actually affected would be a smaller number but still, as explained above, very substantial.

 The amount of the potential overcharge is so small as to undercut the incentive of individual consumers to attempt to obtain a refund and would dramatically increase the costs of administering any settlement. See Dairylea, 1985 WL 1825, at *1 (finding that it would be disproportionately expensive to return monies through devices like sworn claim forms). Indeed, the actual administrative cost of processing claims and mailing out refund checks is estimated to be about $ 2.47 per claim. (MacGregor Aff. P 16.) Moreover, the potential for fraudulent claims is enormous because there are no warranty cards and no other reasonable methods of assuring that the products for which a refund is sought were actually purchased during the damage period. The distribution method here serves the general public interest, the interests of the plaintiffs and the consumers, and the public interests of disgorgement and deterrence. The distribution procedure included in the Settlement Agreement is thus fair, reasonable, and adequate. *fn2"

 The lack of opposition to the settlement also supports its approval. See Keds, 1994 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 3362, 1994 WL 97201, at *3 ("paucity of objections . . . militates in favor of the settlements"). The number of oppositions could best be described as minuscule. Out of the millions of potential consumers, only 611 class members opted out of the settlement, 209 class members registered informal objections, and only 13 others filed formal objections. These objections, which primarily seek personal refunds, do not raise any grounds that lead the Court to conclude that the settlement is not fair, reasonable, and adequate.

 Attorneys representing plaintiffs in class actions in Florida, which raise similar claims to those in this case, appeared at the settlement hearing. Although the notice in this case required any objections to be filed by September 8, 1995, and neither the attorneys nor their clients raised such objections by that time, the Court heard the objections in order to determine whether there were valid objections to the settlement. Similarly, the Court received an objection dated October 12, 1995 from counsel representing plaintiffs in actions filed in Alabama, Georgia, and New York. Each of the actions appear to have been filed after the Settlement Agreement in this case was entered into. These objections, like those individual objections mentioned above, object to the adequacy of the Settlement and in particular urge that the Court should establish a method of individual refunds. The Court has in fact considered these objections and, for the reasons already explained, finds that individual refunds would be impractical, that the method of distribution in the Settlement Agreement is fair, reasonable, and adequate, and that it will accomplish the purposes of the antitrust laws in a way which any effort at individual refunds--which would not only be impractical but would be consumed in the costs of its own administration--would not. *fn3"

 Therefore, the Settlement is approved. Separate orders are being entered approving the Settlement Agreement and entering the Final Judgment and Consent Decree.

 SO ORDERED.

 Dated: New York, New York

 October 20, 1995

 John G. Koeltl

 United States District Judge

 ORDER

 The Court having considered the Settlement Agreement between the Plaintiff States and Defendants Reebok International Ltd., and The Rockport Company, Inc., the Joint Motion for Approval of the Settlement Agreement, the Plaintiffs' and Defendants' Memoranda in Support of the Joint Motion for Final Approval and the attachments thereto, the other pleadings previously filed in this action, and the Court having held a hearing on said motion on October 13, 1995, and having duly considered the objections to the Settlement Agreement, and having excluded from the Settlement those individuals, whose names are listed in Attachment A hereto, who have expressly opted-out of the Settlement Agreement, the Court finds that the Settlement Agreement is fair, reasonable and adequate and it is therefore this 20 day of October 1995,

 ORDERED that the Settlement Agreement is approved by the Court, and it is further

 ORDERED that the parties are authorized to direct that payments be made from the Settlement Agreement in accordance with the Settlement Agreement.

 JOHN G. KOELTL

 United States District Judge ATTACHMENT A Reebok Opt Outs 9/20/95 Decision Last Name First Name Address Opt Out Berger Carl Box 2021 Opt Out Robart Scott 627 W. 20th Ave. Opt Out Dooley Michael 126 Scenic Drive Opt Out McCulloch James 714 Cleermont Drive Opt Out Notermann Margaret 4002 Telstar Cr. SW Opt Out Pounds Joe 8800 Earl Fields Circle Opt Out Rutland Lynwood 412 John C. Wells Rd. Opt Out Shafmaster Al 2024 Mem. Pky., Apt F6 Opt Out Bell Jerry 1828 Parkshore Drive, #4 Opt Out Bastian J. Wallace 725 Kopavi Trail Opt Out Clark Jeffrey ASPC-1F/Central Unit, PO Box 8200 Opt Out Dellinger Roger 11209 N. 27th Place Opt Out Ellis Holly 4872 Judy Circle Opt Out Lindenfeld Stan 1107 E. Greenlee Pl. Opt Out Merrell John 1550 7th Avenue Opt Out Patrick Vernon 17222 N. Central, Suite 371 Opt Out Salahuddin Khalid 4505 So. Hardy Dr. #2182 Opt Out Swenson Kenneth 8265 East Southern, #112 Opt Out Weiss David P.O. Box 41392 Opt Out Albrektson Kathy 619 W. 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Opt Out Kramer William 552 Flat Hills Road Opt Out Luikey Linda 205 I Hickory Street Opt Out McFadden Thomas 6 Swain Street Opt Out Perry Evelyn 58 Agawam Village Opt Out Vitello Bernice 26 Coolidge Ave. Opt Out Vitello Peter 26 Coolidge Ave Opt Out Ward Keir 69 Breer Cir. Opt Out Welson Samuel 8 Kingsley Avenue Opt Out Buckner Robert Leon 248625 Revells Neck Rd. Opt Out Cohen Evelyn 7233 Park Heights Avenue, Apt. E Opt Out Conley Margaret 708 Shelly Road Opt Out Correl Frank 3505 Turner Lane Opt Out Gipson Elaine 2431 Dorchester Rd. Opt Out Hilliard Wesley R. 7706 Woodland Ave Opt Out Jackson Madeline 600 Bryants Nursery Road Opt Out Kramer Catherine 503 Hillen Road Opt Out Love Larry 411 Milford Mill Road Opt Out Obrycki Robert 8743 Brae Brooke Drive Opt Out Pell Jerry 10310 Tailcoat Way Opt Out Roush Carolyn 4059 Federal Hill Road Opt Out Rowland Deryl 806 Lancaster Drive Opt Out Weissman Nathan 8508 Farrell Drive Opt Out Williams Dorothy 4117 Crest Hts. Road Opt Out Yates Mary Asbury Ave., # 18 Opt Out Fuller Gerald Davis, Sr. 150972 Revells Neck Rd. Opt Out Ismail Amr PO Box 660 Opt Out Kinney Janet RFD 2 Box 8540 Opt Out Agno John PO Box 2236 Opt Out Alsobrook Tyrus P.O. Box 8 Opt Out Amormino Eda 23001 Alger Opt Out Banks Carolyn Opt Out Barry Robert 1614 Cherokee Road Opt Out Belen Maier 18409 Alta Vista Drive Opt Out Belen Molly 18409 Alta Vista Drive Opt Out DeHudy Gail 1751 Ritter Drive Opt Out Dillard Lygia 21631 Whitmore Opt Out Hanke Rudolph 1606 W. Wackerly Road Opt Out Harris Jim 1218-1A Runaway Bay Drive Opt Out Howard Cal 106 Thunder Bay Opt Out Huggins Bradford 8124 North Lawn Opt Out Katz Susan Diane 21310 Constitution Opt Out Kustasz Robert 23850 Woodland Opt Out Lewis Scott A. 220 Audubon Opt Out Ludwig Kenneth 2702 Maitland Drive Opt Out McCrary Pamela 2232 Sheridan Opt Out McDermott P.A. 2021 Medford Road, #272 Opt Out Monacelli Joanne 47589 Province Ct. Opt Out Montgomery Beverly 9037 Vaughan Opt Out O'Brien Gloria 2472 Miller Road Opt Out O'Brien Patrick 3040 Brighton Road Opt Out Pallas Seraphim 750 Golfcrest Opt Out Thomas M. 13142 Corbett Opt Out Wikol Murray 3890 Oakland Drive Opt Out Wilson Dolores 20189 Warrington Opt Out Wilson Randall 709 Sparrow Ave Opt Out Woody Lena 13133 Callender Ave. Opt Out Wyatt Quincola 17415 Parkside Opt Out Erickson Mary 12 Meadow Lane Opt Out Goeres Andreas 6036 3rd Ave s. Opt Out Halcomb Doug 7240 Braddock Opt Out Halcomb Nancy 7240 Braddock Opt Out Halloran Elizabeth R. 1011 Feltl Court, #901 Opt Out Johnson C.L. Box 1751 Opt Out Juskievley Edwin 5954 151 Lane, NW Opt Out Law Ray 1019 3rd Ave., NE Opt Out Law Roberta 1019 3rd Ave., NE Opt Out Nelson Kenneth 501 East 100 Street Opt Out Osterkamp Lois 2400 First Ave. East Opt Out Osterkamp Michael 2400 First Ave. East Opt Out Seligson Carol B. 14661 Balfour Opt Out Brennan J.E. 4052 Robert Ave. Opt Out Carta Tom 2211 S. Kentucky Ave. Opt Out Evickson William 3906 Baltimore, #605 Opt Out Hogard M.E. 420 E. 70th Terr. Opt Out Kimbrough Marcia 3216 Grand, #8 Opt Out Papasifakis Peter 1414 Mohican Trail Opt Out Smith Barry PO Box 1458, 202 Vista Oak Court Opt Out Veach O. Fred 802 E. Dear St. Opt Out Greenleaf Joseph 1321 Harbor Point Drive Opt Out Norman A. Lance 7970 Elizabeth Drive Opt Out Teel Monica 999 Gay Road Opt Out Boitnott Bryan 112 Linden Dr. Opt Out Boitnott Don Wayne 112 Linden Dr. Opt Out Boitnott Drew 112 Linden Dr. Opt Out Boitnott Jill 112 Linden Dr. Opt Out Branch Eliza G. 105 Oakmont Circle Opt Out Branch Frederick 105 Oakmont Circle Opt Out Branch Sarah 105 Oakmont Circle Opt Out Branch Thomas 105 Oakmont Circle Opt Out Branch Thomas, Jr. 3605-C Lynnhaven Opt Out Carter Callie 1901 Angelo Street Opt Out Dabks Norma 172 Meadowood Dr. Opt Out Elrod George 6304 Oak Forest Ct. Opt Out Graham Eliza J. 105 Oakmont Circle Opt Out Hunter Michael 891 Newbern Ave. Opt Out Keough Patrick 4604 Old Lake Trail Opt Out Lewis James 3525 Akereromby Dr. Opt Out Matthews Dawn 3121 Union Cross Church Road Opt Out Matthews Michael 3121 Union Cross Church Road Opt Out Morrison Nola 4732 Reid Rd. Opt Out Pollock Cynthia 11445 NC Highway 55 West Opt Out Roberson William Rt. 1 Box 49 Clifton Pond Road Opt Out Silver Patricia 1014 Minerva Avenue Opt Out Washington Nathaniel 12 American Way Opt Out Wilson Harry 244 Myrtle J. Dr. Opt Out Densberger Judy 550 N. Maple St. Opt Out Goodell Mary 11717 Marcy Plaza Opt Out Hupp Alan 2717 Nth 65th Ave. Opt Out Jensen Robert 7730 Mesa Rd. Opt Out Joni Dawe Dee-El 3535 Jefferson St. Opt Out Lee Frances 21 Grossland Ridge Ct., PO Box 721 Opt Out Quinlan Harry 5615 North 68th Street Opt Out Rosenberry Leonard 4210 Larry Lane Opt Out Hersey Robert 64 Concord Way Opt Out Larorgna Noreen 8 Noble Street Opt Out Leedberg Glen 18 Cota Road Opt Out Altay Hujeyin 197 Rt. 46 W. Opt Out Barish Richard 1346 Asbury Avenue Opt Out Bauer Wilma 111 Chestnut Street Opt Out Dawkins Joel 174 Mt. Prospect Ave., # 1B Opt Out DeRobertis Vincent 61 Virginia Avenue Opt Out Gregg Gregory 100 Elm Drive Opt Out Lory Albert 32 Edinburgh Lane Opt Out Lysut R. 700 Schuyler Ave., # 626 Opt Out Maginn Robert 56 Beverly Place Opt Out Malenich George 220 Philip Ave. Opt Out Martorano Camille 34 Tahoe Lane Opt Out Martorano Jack 34 Tahoe Lane Opt Out Neubauer Beverly 61 Duncan Ave. Opt Out O'Mara George 807 Adele Street Opt Out O'Mara Sean 807 Adele Street Opt Out Raffery Nancy 516 Grand Ave. Opt Out Salamar Luis 196 Starlight Court Opt Out Vena Tony 97 Maybrook Drive Opt Out Weissman Gary 4001 N. Oaks Blvd. Opt Out Winkler Jeffrey 3 Richmond Court Opt Out Zeitlin Jacqueline 19 Byro Ave. Opt Out Zeitlin Michael 19 Byro Ave. Opt Out Bauer John 1375 Kings Row Opt Out Bayer Arthur 412 North Curry Street Opt Out Hook Mary 2301 Addie Blvd., #69 Opt Out Levenson Jonathan 2680 Copper Cove Drive Opt Out Batas Musette 3397 Bentha Drive Opt Out Bell Helen 384 Raymond Street Opt Out Bergman Abby 10 Downing Ct. Opt Out Bianid Joseph 57 Carriage Road Opt Out Boland-DeVito Joyce 23 Chestnut Street Opt Out Boland-DeVito Vincent 23 Chestnut Street Opt Out Burruss Mel P.O. Box 2638 Opt Out Buzzeo Anthony 52 Wenlock St. Opt Out Caeer James 2653 Laguna Drive Opt Out Cilaffo Frank 2555 36th St. Opt Out Conde D. 4423 New York Ave. Opt Out Conde Joseph 4423 New York Ave. Opt Out Daly Margaret 777-31 Tuckahoe Rd. Opt Out Debaray Sean 37 Arizona Ave. Opt Out DeSanctis Mario 70 Peggy Ann Road Opt Out Doe Rod 38 Oakview Avenue Opt Out Dove Tom 325 Sunrise Ave. Opt Out Elkin Jerome 79 Westwood Ave. Opt Out Falco Jesse 92 Bristol Dr. Opt Out Faulhaber Greg 1633 Hendrickson Ave Opt Out Forman Robert 56 Lily Pond Lane Opt Out Franklin Harry 90 Gold St, # 16F Opt Out Franklin Rose 90 Gold St, # 16F Opt Out Gold Richard 377 Route 59 Opt Out Gomez Victor 791 Manor Rd. Opt Out Harris Shirley 36 Gulf Road Opt Out Harris William 36 Gulf Road Opt Out Herson Catherine 50 Burdick Hill Opt Out Hollenbeck David 207 East 5th Street Opt Out Hollenbeck Rhonda 207 East 5th St. Opt Out Housel John 178 Lydander Dr. Opt Out Jordan Thomas 111 Tibbetts Rd. Opt Out Kaia Kristine 29 Humphrey Dr. Opt Out Kim Sunny Opt Out Koprivnjak Joseph 4423 New York Ave. Opt Out Kraft Esslie 805 Niagara Parkway Opt Out Kraft Irna 805 Niagara Parkway Opt Out Kushner Evan 1 Wilson Place Opt Out Lamarch Arlene P.O. Box 136 Opt Out Lapp Darryl 2711 Rosebud Ave. Opt Out Levine Elizabeth 5 Stuyvesant Oval, #12 E Opt Out Lichtenstein Jordan 47 Juneau Blvd. Opt Out Lo Cicero Lucille 135 West End Ave. Opt Out Lord Richard 1063 Christy Lane Opt Out Lummer Jack 86-15 Broadway Opt Out Maiti Noel 10 Roberta Lane Opt Out McGuinness Joe 14 Cedar Dr. Opt Out Minikes Saul 1161 East 12th Street Opt Out Motta Frank 5 Richfield Court Opt Out Mugluy Daniel St. Andrew's Church, 6713 Ridge Blvd. Opt Out Munoz Edward 28-01 21st Ave., 3rd Floor Opt Out Munoz Krista 28-01 21st Ave., 3rd Floor Opt Out Newmeyer R.A. 4030 75th Street, Apt 6K Opt Out Nichols Bernard 17 Marisa Drive Opt Out Nowak Eleanore 151 S. Irwinwood Rd. Opt Out Pagliaro Steven P.O. Box 60324 Opt Out Pancer Joseph 1664 49th Street Opt Out Rizzo Madeline 77 Fulton Street, Apt. 26M Opt Out Rogoff Martin 13 Friendly Rd. Opt Out Ruffner Robin 300 E. 34th Street, #27A Opt Out Saenz Michelle 718 59th Street Opt Out Schillinger John 1633 Hendrickson Ave Opt Out Schlesinger Shirley 20-64 31 Street, Apt. D6 Opt Out Schwartz Ron 33 E. 208 St., #5A Opt Out Serani Carmela 567 Woodbury Road Opt Out Serani Silvio 567 Woodbury Road Opt Out Shiah Nancy 1571 Benjamin Drive Opt Out Silver Wendy 72 Melanie Lane Opt Out Sliayo Melvin 2700 Henry Hudson Pkwy Opt Out Soong Wayne 6 Willets Ave. Opt Out Sullivan Vincent 39 Split Cedar Drive Opt Out Susser Matthew 8 Circle Dr. Opt Out Terino John 29 Lourae Dr. Opt Out Villella Thomas 266 Elmwood Avenue, Suite 151 Opt Out Yasko C. Matthew 20 Buena Vista Ave. Opt Out Zahini Harel 49 Victor Lane Opt Out Abelt Raymond 4755 Blythin Road Opt Out Amore Louis 6164 Dingin Rd. Opt Out Angtuaco Ernesto 3635 Sugarbush Drive Opt Out Bostic Betty 17614 Franklin Ave. Opt Out Bravo Ernest 42511 Appleway Opt Out Farr John 27001 White Rd. Opt Out Gudis John C. 543 E. Walnut Ave. Opt Out Hart John 950 Talus Dr. Opt Out Lamb Lloyd 11 1/2 E. 2nd St. Opt Out Masilonis Ann 18432 Lake Shore Blvd., #306 Opt Out Prince Pamela 6680 Ross Road Opt Out Salim Hamid 6898 Bowie Rd. Opt Out Sindelan Phillip 392 Connie Ct. Opt Out Tackett Sandra 319 S. Butler St. Opt Out Thomas Ralph 6152 Fireside Dr., Apt B Opt Out Thorp Bessie 2476 Northview Dr. Opt Out Weiss Christopher 6191 Lakeview Dr., So. Opt Out Weiss Joseph 6191 Lakeview Dr., So. Opt Out Wright Eileen 805 Firethorn Drive Opt Out Zath Luis 10407 Biddulph Road Opt Out Zierolf Peter P.O. Box 2085 Opt Out Currie Orin R. 106 Fleetwood Pl. Opt Out Folmar Patricia 818 NW 16th Street Opt Out Hemingway-Mason Lawanda P.O. Box 1658 Opt Out Schroeder Charles 2304 Brookdale Ave. Opt Out Searcy Robert 6106 East 93rd Street Opt Out Sellmeyer Frank 2606 E. 151st South Opt Out Sellmeyer Jane 2606 E. 151st South Opt Out Brock James 595 Kingwood Drive, NW Opt Out Erb Kenneth 525 E. 11th Ave. Opt Out Kropitzer Harold 11220 NW Ridge Road Opt Out Kropitzer Lorraine 11220 NW Ridge Road Opt Out Russell Allen 1718 NE 26th Ave. Opt Out Thayer Rebecca 9JR9 1571000120000012T000012 120 NW 12th Opt Out Wynn Randall 58316-065, P.O. Box 5000 Opt Out Billig Erma 59 Titus Lane Opt Out Bogart Robert RR 2, Box 223-B Opt Out Borromeo Alexander 118 Blue Ridge Rd. Opt Out Branchick Daniel 248 W. Broad Street Opt Out Bruno John 1200 Chelton Ave. Opt Out Chappell Albert 443 Bianca Circle Opt Out Christiansen Eric 178 Foal Court Opt Out Corr Eleanor 218 Butternut Lane Opt Out De Mars Norbert 63 Fairfiew Ave. Opt Out Devenney Mary 135 Rosewood Avenue Opt Out Faeder Elizabeth 1111 Pine Ridge Opt Out Faeder Paul 1111 Pine Ridge Opt Out Hurley Florence 1302 Orchard Road Opt Out Jenkins Harold 1334 Franklin Street Opt Out Keeler Ronald 303 E. Main Street Opt Out McGimpsey Frank 619 Clifford St. Opt Out Meucci Michael M. 203 Pittsburgh St. Opt Out Mihelcic John 199 Main Entrance Drive Opt Out Moore Brenda 490 Pinewood Drive Opt Out Moore James 490 Pinewood Drive Opt Out Owen H.R. Opt Out Peasley Esther Box 65 Opt Out Peasley Naomi 315 Rosemont Drive Opt Out Peasley Seth 315 Rosemont Drive Opt Out Rittenhouse John 201 N. Fourth Ave., P.O. Box 89 Opt Out Shcwoebel William 21 Williams Road Opt Out Spiegel Seymour 363 S. Highland Ave., Apt 903 Opt Out Veverka Albert 419 Longridge Dr. Opt Out Warner Julie 3520 Center St. Opt Out Warner Larry 3520 Center St. Opt Out Williams Leslie 798 W. Edwin St., #73 Opt Out LaFountaine Joseph 160 Terrace Ave. Opt Out Poniatowski Jean 5 Champlin Avenue Opt Out Barrett Glen 200 Rochester Road Opt Out Calvez Daniel 143 Country Lakes Road Opt Out Johnson Elbert Lloyd 309 Dixiana Drive Opt Out Rubin Debra 1323 Old Mill Lane Opt Out Smith Joe 702 Shand Street Opt Out Whatley Ian 240 Donington Drive Opt Out Frey Richard P.O. Box 384 Opt Out Weir Jerome 2805 S. Williams Opt Out Ballard Billy 107 Fisher Drive Opt Out Couta JoAnn 205 Mary Sharp Opt Out Denton Randall 517 Kildare Dr. Opt Out Rice Robert 1782 1st Green Drive Opt Out Tuttle Frank PO Box 210972 Opt Out Verges Albert 6138 New Beaver Creek Drive Opt Out Wolfe Carol 4513 S. Germantown Road Opt Out Acheson Sandra P.O. Box 97 Opt Out Adams William 706 Shady Lane Opt Out Buck Glenda 401 Blueberry Lane Opt Out Buck Rex 401 Blueberry Lane Opt Out Chamblee Harrel 3205 N. Britain Rd. Opt Out Devine Jesse 4121 Knightsbridge Lane Opt Out Emmons David 3223 Smith St., Suite 303 Opt Out Emmons Jonothan 3223 Smith St., Suite 303 Opt Out Emmons Mary 3223 Smith St., Suite 303 Opt Out Emmons William 3223 Smith St., Suite 303 Opt Out Esparza Jose RR #3, Box 393 Opt Out Farmer E. Vanoy 902 Lincoln Drive Opt Out Hagen Dorothy 3001 Addie Lane Opt Out Haynes Frances L. 11987 Steamboat Springs Dr. Opt Out Hernandez Mrs. 1928 Mirall Street Opt Out Heysquierdo Anthony 554826 Rt. 4, Box 1300 Opt Out Higgins Jim 245 St. Cloud Opt Out Horne Beth 7990 Locke Lane, #7 Opt Out Hunsucker Jack 1506 Narcissus Blvd. Opt Out Lacina Helen 1005 McLane Opt Out Lacina Steve 1005 McLane Opt Out Lynch Betty P.O. Box 282 Opt Out Martinez Jose 3201 Edgewood Ln. Opt Out Mota Pablo 2020 Live Oak Opt Out Mutschler Dwight One Bay Street, P.O. Box 69 Opt Out Pilgrim Jeff 15035 Westpark, #311 Opt Out Sandefer Linda P.O. Box 6537 Opt Out Sapp Ohlen 3740 N. Josey Lane, #130 Opt Out Sapp Teresa 1923 E. Branch Hollow Drive Opt Out Saucedo Jerry Opt Out Shelton Jackie P.O. Box 968 Opt Out Sims Jerrell 2714 Emberwood Drive Opt Out Tate Margie 27 1/2 Parkview Ave. Opt Out Williams Chrislelar 17310 Edgehaven Opt Out Williams Demetria 17310 Edgehaven Opt Out Williams Lee B. 17310 Edgehaven Opt Out Williams Lee Robert 17310 Edgehaven Opt Out Zellman Glenn 7500 Kirby Drive, #1330 Opt Out Cassin Edward 261 Vampire Lane Opt Out Marsh Pat 5297 S. 450 W. Opt Out Middleton Linda 9JR9 1835002277002700*002700 2277 South 2700 West Opt Out Monson Jeff P.O. Box 2392 Opt Out Stevens Don 2783 W. 6000 SO. Opt Out Ballard William 4448 Blackbeard Rd. Opt Out Barbour Consuella O. Route 2, Box 466 Opt Out Beamon James 2216 Alabama Avenue Opt Out Blacutt John G. 5274 Navaho Dr. Opt Out Browne Ronald L. Rt. 1, Box 418-A Opt Out Chupka Michael 3601 Stoney Ridge Road Opt Out Dowdy Nancy 104 Hamption Court Opt Out Fluellyn Bobby 36 Hillcrest Ave. Opt Out Frank Margot 2182 Woodcrest Dr Opt Out Mickolus Edward 2305 Sandburg St Opt Out Pendergrass James 1800 S. Cleveland Street Opt Out Plotnick Barry 1561 Dairy Road Opt Out Plotnick Virginia 1561 Dairy Road Opt Out Sheats Dorothy 414 Lingstrom Lane Opt Out Sheats Jenifer 414 Lingstrom Lane Opt Out Sheats William 414 Lingstrom Lane Opt Out Vasta Alfio 612 Abbey Dr. Opt Out Brandt Roy 12606 Cherokee Drive, P.O. Box 39 Opt Out Kiehn James E. 823 Sitka #102 Opt Out Pilawski Gary 12449 NE 162nd Street Opt Out Pilawski Kristin, 12449 NE 162nd Street Opt Out Pilawski Susan 12449 NE 162nd Street Opt Out Shivers Louise Apt. 305, 940 N. 163rd Street Opt Out Whisman Franklin 330 SW Sunset Blvd., Apt. #8 Opt Out Wollett Fritz 5815 17th Avenue, NE Opt Out Brummer Charles 4301 Canvasback Lane Opt Out Conti Peter 2028 S. 36th St. Opt Out Cooper Charles 2045 Hawthorne Drive Opt Out Eidsor Dennis 9101 129th Ave. Opt Out Lehran Sue N315 Hwy 163 Opt Out Lucente John Box 236, 410 Fifth St Opt Out Maertz William 6585 South Crane Drive Opt Out Meyer Benjamin 5740 Pembroke Drive Opt Out Peasley Louis C. 6702 Crocus Ct., #1 Opt Out Rooney James F. 1500 Michigan Blvd. Opt Out Rymaszewski Jeffrey 513 Brookdale Ct. Opt Out Rymaszewski Margaret 513 Brookdale Ct Opt Out Sanders Bonita W222 N2838 Foxwood Lane Opt Out Sanders Dennis W222 N2838 Foxwood Lane Opt Out Van Hierden Paul 5300 W. Fond Du Lac Avenue Opt Out Huber Jane 304 Shelley Dr. Opt Out Crowder Mary 197 Lovell Drive, Apt. A Opt Out Crowder Ross General Delivery Opt Out Darby Kay 109 Carney Dr. Opt Out Maxwell Linda 1526B Lewis Street Opt Out Simmons Kathy P.O. Box 40 Count of 611 Decision: Reebok Opt Outs 9/20/95 Zip Last Name First Name City State Code Berger Carl Bethel AK 99559 Robart Scott Anchorage AK 99503 Dooley Michael Madison AL 35758 McCulloch James Huntsville AL 35801 Notermann Margaret Huntsville AL 35805 Pounds Joe Northport AL 35476 Rutland Lynwood Daleville AL 36322 Shafmaster Al Huntsville AL 35810 Bell Jerry Fayetteville AR 72703 Bastian J. Wallace Prescott Valley AZ 86303 Clark Jeffrey Florence AZ 85232 Dellinger Roger Phoenix AZ 85028 Ellis Holly Prescott Valley AZ 86314 Lindenfeld Stan Tuscon AZ 85719 Merrell John Yuma AZ 85364 Patrick Vernon Phoenix AZ 85022 Salahuddin Khalid Tempe AZ 85282 Swenson Kenneth Mesa AZ 85208 Weiss David Tuscon AZ 85717 Albrektson Kathy San Bernardino CA 92407 Albrektson Ray San Bernardino CA 92407 Armsbeiry Roberta Vallejo CA 94590 Barnes Jean Richmond CA 94804 Barrett Crystal Richmond CA 94801 Booker Richard Beverly Hills CA 90211 Brown Michael Brisbane CA 94005 Cebula Dennis Vacaville CA 94533 Chaldez Susan Hawaiian Gardens CA 90716 Coleman Deirdre El Cerrito CA 94530 Cruz Clifford Vallejo CA 94591 Duvcon Edward San Diego CA 92122 Dzuro Ellie Santa Barbara CA 93111 Dzuro Paul Santa Barbara CA 93111 Ellis Frederick Berkeley CA 94705 Franco Tony Savannah CA 31419 Garfield James Los Angeles CA 90064 Grover Jeanette Berry Creek CA 95916 Grover Mark Berry Creek CA 95916 Hassett Terri Bakersfield CA 93309 Hendricks Terence Napa CA 94558 Jensen Carl Cotati CA 94931 Kaplan Walter Los Angeles CA 90045 Kato Janice Albany CA 94706 Kato Jiro Albany CA 94706 Kato Nancy Albany CA 94706 Kato Kiyo Albany CA 94706 Kennedy James Frazier Park CA 93225 Kennedy Lynne Frazier Park CA 93225 Kinoshita Michael Mountain View CA 94041 Little Robert San Diego CA 92130 Mason Albert Santa Barbara CA 93110 Matula Maria La Mesa CA 91942 Melton James SQ CA 94974 Neenan John San Jose CA 95129 Neja Paul Walnut Creek CA 94596 Oswald R.W. Concord CA 94521 Parnell Roger Chico CA 95926 Pepin Alfred Vacaville CA 95687 Pierscinski L. Casimir Sacramento CA 95822 Pillow Patricia Ventura CA 93004 Pillow Richard Ventura CA 93004 Pon Pamela San Francisco CA 94132 Ross Marvelle Chino Hills CA 91709 Scott J. Albany CA 94706 Shukid Yatri Villa Park CA 92667 Shukid P.K. Villa Park CA 92667 Thompson Jerry Lompoc CA 93436 Waldon Bessie Berkeley CA 94707 Waldon Donald Berkeley CA 94707 Weist R.R. Santa Barbara CA 93105 Wilkin Gene San Luis Obispo CA 93401 Wilmot Charles Bakersfield CA 93308 Baumgartner Joseph L. Elizabeth CO 80107 Boggs Matthew T. Parker CO 80134 Boggs Robert Elizabeth CO 80107 Brown Debra Denver CO 80231 Carey Carolyn Denver CO 80210 Hamdeh Daniel Commerce City CO 80022 Hamdeh Margie Commerce City CO 80022 Shuman Billy Denver CO 80220 Shuman Jeane Denver CO 80220 Atterberry Gregory Meriden CT 06451 Caruso Charles Darien CT 06820 Chiriboga Carlos East Granby CT 06026 Chiriboga Susan East Granby CT 06026 Connair Stephen East Lyme CT 06333 Griffiths Brian J. Ashford CT 06278 Griffiths Lisa Marie Ashford CT 06278 Hogfeldt Vic West Haven CT 06516 Kahn Jerome West Redding CT 06896 Pacukonas Richard Vernon CT 06066 Von Kohorn Robert Monroe CT 06468 Cherrington Stephen Washington DC 20016 Robles Cherisse Washington DC 20005 Onyango Samuel Wilmington DE 19810 Aspinwell Glen Lehigh Acres FL 33936 Barker June Ft. Pierce FL 34950 Blessitt Arthur North OPINION FOOTNOTES n1 In this case, the Court approved publication notice to the class, as the parens patriae statute permits. See 15 U.S.C. § 15c(b)(1) (providing that notice by publication is appropriate in parens patriae actions); see also State of New York and Maryland et al. v. Nintendo of America, Inc., No. 91-2498, 1991 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 10426, *8, 1991 WL 148830, at *3-*4 (S.D.N.Y. July 31, 1991) and cases cited therein. This was plainly the best notice practicable under the circumstances given the enormous number of potential class numbers who had purchased products, the lack of warranty cards to identify customers, and the high costs of individual notice. Even the costs of newspaper notice were very high. Notice by publication commenced on July 9, 1995. The published notice was reasonable notice to the class consistent with due process. Notice of the Settlement Agreement was published in newspapers circulated in each Plaintiff State. The size of the newspaper notices was 3 columns by 8 inches of display advertising, appearing once in the Sunday edition of each newspaper agreed upon by the parties, or if there was no Sunday edition, once during the week of July 9, 1995. Notices appeared in a total of 808 newspapers at a total cost of $ 875,571.35. The notices instructed consumers that they could write to the Settlement Trustee for more information regarding the terms of the Settlement. n2 15 U.S.C. § 15e provides: Monetary relief recovered in an action under 15c(a)(1) of this title shall-- (1) be distributed in such manner as the district court in its discretion may authorize; or (2) be deemed a civil penalty by the court and deposited with the State as general revenues; subject in either case to the requirement that any distribution procedure adopted afford each person a reasonable opportunity to secure his appropriate portion of the net monetary relief. The distribution procedure in this case satisfies the requirements of § 15e. In the very similar circumstances of the Dairylea distribution, the court found that the distribution procedure satisfied the statute because any distribution procedure per person or per household would be so small that it would be consumed by administrative costs. There was thus no realistic distribution procedure that afforded anyone a reasonable opportunity to secure an appropriate portion. The procedure here, which provides a public benefit directed at those most likely to use the affected products, is the most reasonable distribution procedure to provide a realistic benefit for the class. n3 The attorneys for the plaintiffs in the Alabama, New York, and Georgia actions also complain about the adequacy of the notice to the class to advise consumers about the possibility of opt-outs and the date of the settlement hearing. As explained above in note 1, the notice was in fact fair and adequate and was the best notice practicable in the circumstances of this case.

19951020

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