multipliers, totals approximately 930 people. Id. at 6. Most of those residents live in two high-rise cooperative and condominium towers at the edge of the BID. Id. Several low-rise residential buildings are scattered throughout the BID. Id.
The primary way in which property owners are disproportionately affected by GCDMA's activities is that they foot the bill for these activities. Residential, commercial, and industrial property owners in the BID, rather than residential or commercial tenants, are subject to the real property assessment levied by the GCDMA. Payment of the assessment is mandatory as a matter of state and local law. Joint Stip. P 70. If a property owner fails to pay the assessment, a lien can be placed on his or her property. Thus, the voting property owners are uniquely subject to a mandatory assessment and lien if they fail to pay the assessment. This clearly has a disproportionate effect on property owners. Moreover, property owners receive a significant benefit from GCDMA's activities, as their property values can only increase as business improves. It is doubtful that property owners would be willing to finance GCDMA's activities if "short-term lessees whose fortunes were not in the long run tied to the [value of the property] were to have a major vote in the affairs of the District." Salyer, 410 U.S. at 732.
Where, as here, one group is "primarily burdened and benefited by the establishment and operation of" a special district, the State "may condition the vote accordingly." Associated Enterprises, 410 U.S. at 745. See also Ball, 451 U.S. at 364 n.8; Kramer, 395 U.S. at 627. Similarly, based upon these facts, the State could "rationally make the weight of [property owners'] votes dependant upon the [square footage] they own, since that number reasonably reflects the relative risk they incurred as [property owners] and the distribution of the benefits and the burdens of the [BID's services]." Ball, 451 U.S. at 371 (footnote omitted).
C. The GC BID's Voting Scheme Has a Reasonable Relationship to the Purpose of the GC BID
Because the voting scheme is not subject to the one-person, one-vote requirement, it need only be reasonably related to the purpose of the GC BID to satisfy the Equal Protection Clause. See Salyer, 410 U.S. at 730-32. Business activity contributes a great deal to a state, from employment of its citizens to revenue generated through taxes that help finance its budget. The services provided by GCDMA, as discussed above, are of a nature and quality that predominantly seek to improve and promote business activity in the district. The assessment, paid only by property owners, is a primary means of financing the services and improvements the GCP and GCDMA provide. The New York State Legislature could therefore reasonably conclude that property owners would not have agreed to subject their property to such an assessment unless they had a dominant role in determining how that revenue would be allocated. See id., 410 U.S. at 731. Moreover, unlike Salyer and Ball, non-property owners, including residential and commercial tenants, are not disenfranchised, they just cannot hold a majority of seats on the Board. This voting scheme bears a reasonable relationship to the functions of BIDs and does not violate the Equal Protection Clause.
Because the GCDMA serves a special limited purpose that disproportionately affects property owners, the election of the GC BID Board is not subject to the one-person, one-vote requirement of the Equal Protection Clause. Under the special limited purpose doctrine, the voting scheme for the Board, as found in GML § 980-m(b), Admin. Code § 25-414(b), and the GCDMA Bylaws, does not offend the Equal Protection Clause because it reasonably relates to the purpose of the BID.
While it may be difficult to "decide when experimentation and political compromise have resulted in an impermissible delegation of  governmental powers, . . . state legislatures, responsive to the interests of all the people, normally are better qualified to make this judgment than federal courts." Ball, 451 U.S. at 373 (Powell, J., concurring) (footnote omitted). The New York State legislature has made such a judgment by creating BIDs. Moreover, today's decision will not leave Plaintiffs without a remedy for their grievance. Because Plaintiffs are qualified voters in New York, they are equal participants in the election of the state and local government officials who created and have the power to change the statutory voting scheme that controls the election of the Board. See id., at 371 n.20.
For the reasons stated above, Plaintiffs' motion for summary judgment is denied. Defendant and Intervenor-Defendants' cross-motions for summary judgment are granted. The Clerk of the Court is directed to enter judgment in favor of Defendant and Intervenor-Defendants.
Shira A. Scheindlin
Dated: New York, New York
March 27, 1997