The opinion of the court was delivered by: KAPLAN
LEWIS A. KAPLAN, District Judge.
Santiago Santana moves this Court under 28 U.S.C. § 2255 to vacate, set aside or correct his sentence based on the alleged ineffectiveness of his counsel at sentencing. For the following reasons, the Court finds that Santana is not entitled to relief.
On July 30, 1993, Santana pleaded guilty to one count of conspiracy to distribute and to possess with intent to distribute more than one kilogram of heroin, in violation of 21 U.S.C. § 846. Judge Pierre Leval sentenced him on April 29, 1994 to 130 months' imprisonment. Santana did not directly appeal his conviction or sentence.
By pro se application dated February 24, 1997, Santana moves this Court to vacate his sentence pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 2255. The motion alleges that Santana had ineffective assistance of counsel at sentencing. Specifically, Santana claims that: (1) his attorney failed to object to Judge Leval's imposition of a sentence at the high end of the applicable guideline range; and (2) his attorney failed to object when Judge Leval did not state on the record a particularized reason for selecting and imposing the 130 month sentence.
Santana's motion is untimely under the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act ("AEDPA"). The AEDPA, which became effective on April 24, 1996, requires that Section 2255 motions be filed within one year of the date on which the judgment of conviction becomes final." 28 U.S.C. § 2255 (6th unnumbered paragraph). Prior to the enactment of the AEDPA, no time limit applied to the filing of Section 2255 motions.
Because Santana's motion was brought almost three years after his judgment became final, the new one-year time limit, if applied strictly, would bar Santana's motion.
However, because Santana had a right to bring a claim up until the date of the AEDPA's enactment, he must be afforded a reasonable opportunity after the AEDPA's enactment to pursue it.
"A statute cannot retroactively bar a prisoner from his or her ability to have a court consider the propriety of a § 2255 motion without first having a reasonable time to bring the claim; additionally, there is no indication Congress intended to foreclose prisoners who had no prior notice of the new limitations period from bringing their § 2255 motions."
Indeed, a number of Circuits have held that prisoners are entitled to a full year after the effective date of the AEDPA to bring Section 2255 claims.
The Second Circuit has yet to expressly consider the effect of the new one-year time limit on Section 2255 claims arising out convictions final more than one year prior to the AEDPA's effectiveness date but filed after that date.
However, in considering the almost identical provision governing habeas corpus petitions under 28 U.S.C. § 2254, the Second Circuit held that prisoners are permitted a "reasonable time" after the effective date of the AEDPA to file a petition. In contrast to other Circuits, the Second Circuit found "no need to accord a full year after the effective date of the AEDPA."
In this case, Santana's motion was filed at least 306 days after the effective date of the AEDPA and almost three years after his judgment of conviction became final.
Santana fails to offer a legitimate justification for the delay. His motion is thus untimely because he did not file it within a reasonable time after the effective date of the AEDPA.
Even assuming, arguendo, that his motion was timely, Santana's claim is without merit for at least three additional reasons. First, Santana specifically waived any right to appeal a sentence that fell within the sentencing range specified in the plea agreement, in this case 120-135 months.
Santana was sentenced to 130 months' imprisonment, which was within the specified range. "In no circumstance . . . may a defendant, who has secured the benefits of a plea agreement and knowingly and voluntarily waived the right to appeal a certain sentence, then appeal the merits of a sentence conforming to the agreement."
Second, Santana failed to raise his claims on direct review. "A party who fails to raise an issue on direct appeal and subsequently endeavors to litigate the issue via a § 2255 [motion] must 'show that there was cause for failing to raise the issue, and prejudice resulting therefrom.' A fortiori, such a showing must be made when there is a complete failure to take direct appeal."
Santana does not assert any justifiable grounds for his ...