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September 18, 2000


The opinion of the court was delivered by: Johnson, District Judge.


This class action is brought by New York City residents with AIDS or HIV-related illnesses seeking equal and meaningful access to publicly subsidized benefits. Plaintiffs sued city and state officials, claiming violations of the Americans with Disabilities Act ("ADA"), the Medicaid Act, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1974, and other violations of state and federal laws. After a lengthy period of discovery and motion practice, this Court held a bench trial on the merits of this case on May 1, 2000, May 2, 2000, June 20, 2000, June 21, 2000, and June 22, 2000. Based on the evidence and testimony presented at trial, the Court makes the following findings of fact and conclusions of law:


Nature of the Case

1. Plaintiffs commenced this action against defendants for failure to provide meaningful and equal access to public benefits and services as required by the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Rehabilitation Act, and for failure to comply with numerous federal and state laws, including the Social Security Act, the Medicaid Act, the New York Social Services Law, and various regulations under these acts. Second Am. Compl. ¶¶ 1-2.

2. This Court has subject matter jurisdiction over the federal law claims against both City and State defendants pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 1331 and exercises supplemental jurisdiction over the state law claims against only the City defendants pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 1367(a). See Second Am. Compl. ¶¶ 6-8; Joint Pre-Trial Order at 3; Henrietta D. v. Giuliani, 81 F. Supp.2d 425, 428 (E.D.N.Y. 2000).

3. The Division of AIDS Services and Income Support ("DASIS"), a division of the New York City Human Resources Administration ("HRA"), is the means for indigent individuals living with AIDS or clinical/symptomatic HIV to access critical subsistence benefits and services offered by City and State defendants. Rather than requiring persons with AIDS or clinical/symptomatic HIV illness to access the many programs administered by HRA on their own, DASIS case managers are responsible for assisting clients in applying for and maintaining public assistance, Medicaid, Food Stamps, housing, Social Security benefits, and other benefits and services. DASIS was known as the Division of AIDS Services ("DAS") until it was consolidated with HRA's Income Support division in 1997.

Plaintiff Class

4. This Court certified the original named plaintiffs as representatives of a class of "all DAS-eligible persons" who seek public assistance benefits and services. In order to be a DASIS client, an individual must be: a New York City resident who is "Medicaid eligible," and has been diagnosed with clinical/systematic HIV illness or AIDS. Henrietta D. v. Giuliani, 1996 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 22373 at *47; Tr. at 662: 9-12.

5. Pursuant to stipulation between the parties, Henry Bradley, Owen-Pahl Greene and Richard Torres intervened in this action "as representative named plaintiffs." Pre-Trial Odr. at 10 and Ex. 4.*fn1

AIDS and the Need for Reasonable Modifications

6. People living with HIV and AIDS develop numerous illnesses and physical conditions not found in the general population, and experience manifestations of common illnesses that are much more aggressive, recurrent, and difficult to treat. Infections and cancers spread rapidly in a person whose immune system has been compromised, and the effectiveness of medicine is diminished by nutritional problems that limit the body's ability to absorb what is ingested. Illnesses that are not lethal to the general population can kill an HIV-infected person. For all these reasons, persons with AIDS and HIV-related disease experience serious functional limitations that make it extremely difficult, if not impossible in some cases, to negotiate the complicated City social service system on their own. See Henrietta D. v. Giuliani, 1996 U.S.Dist. LEXIS 22373 at *4-5; Tr. at 435:12-444:21.

7. As the immune system deteriorates, persons infected with HIV progress from being asymptomatic to developing symptoms such as weight loss, severe gynecological infections, chronic diarrhea, and fatigue. Eventually, HIV and AIDS strips the body of all defenses, leaving the infected person unable to fend off or combat new and existing infection and illness. At this later stage of HIV infection, patients commonly develop "opportunistic infections" such as PCP pneumonia, cryptococcal meningitis, and Kaposi's Sarcoma, diseases particular to persons with compromised immune systems. These illnesses and infections eventually cause death. Tr. at 435:12-444:21.

8. The opportunistic infections and chronic conditions that result from a weakened immune system limit the HIV-infected person's ability to engage in regular activities of daily life such as traveling, standing in line, attending scheduled appointments, completing paper work, and otherwise negotiating medical and social service bureaucracies. Some examples of these conditions include: cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis, a visual impairment that often results in blindness; severe wasting syndrome, which causes chronic diarrhea, extreme fatigue and, in some instances, gait impairment; peripheral neuropathy, a disturbance of the peripheral nervous system that causes numbness or tingling of the hands and feet, weakness in the legs, arms and hands, and severe pain that can interfere with the ability to walk; and AIDS dementia complex, a neurocognitive dysfunction that can interfere with the ability to understand written materials and/or fill out forms. Tr. at 435:12-444:21.

9. Functional limitations also develop from the primary drugs used to combat AIDS and HIV-related disease, among them AZT, DDI, ddC, protease inhibitors, and anti-neoplastic agents. These medications result in anemia and other side effects, with concomitant fatigue, shortness of breath, and other physical limitations. An individual receiving this common regime of prescription drugs likely will be restricted in his or her ability to walk, stand, or travel. Other side effects include enhanced neuropathy, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Tr. at 442:6-21.

10. The latest medical development in the fight against HIV disease is the prescription of so-called "drug cocktails," which consist of two older AIDS drugs, such as AZT and 3TC, and the latest antiviral drugs, protease inhibitors. These drugs create added complications for patients including extremely cumbersome treatment regimens and serious side effects, such as nausea and gastrointestinal symptoms. The drugs must be taken several times a day, some on an empty stomach and some after meals, and treatment regimens can include up to sixty pills a day. Additionally, some of these drugs require refrigeration. Tr. at 441:24-444:11.

11. People living with AIDS and HIV also have a particularly hard time obtaining adequate nutrition. Illness and infection often limit the appetite and the body's ability to absorb nutrients, and common HIV-related conditions like oral thrush can physically limit the ability to swallow. Nausea, a common side effect of drugs used to treat AIDS and HIV infection, can also result in an inability to eat properly. Due to HIV-related disease, many HIV-infected persons have dietary restrictions. These nutritional restrictions can be difficult or impossible to maintain. Poverty, limited mobility, and limited resources result in limited access to fresh, high-quality food, and necessary dietary supplements. Pl.Ex. 13, at 3-4.

12. Stress is another critical problem faced by people living with AIDS and HIV. HIV-infected persons necessarily struggle with many stresses in their lives, including the likelihood of early death, management of a multitude of symptoms and medications, the future welfare of their children, rejection of friends and family, stigma, and discrimination. The added stress of lack of housing, food, medical care, or other basic survival services that indigent people face poses a serious threat to health. Medical evidence suggests that stress causes further weakening of the immune system in HIV-infected persons, making it even more difficult to fight illnesses and infections. Tr. at 444:12-21.

13. The requirement that persons with AIDS and advanced HIV disease travel to and wait in infection-ridden public waiting rooms can be dangerous, and even life-threatening, for this population, all of whom suffer from severely weakened immune systems. Persons with AIDS, for example, are highly susceptible to tuberculosis and other infectious diseases. Thus, persons with AIDS and advanced HIV disease require medically appropriate conditions in which to establish, receive, and maintain their benefits, as well as medically appropriate housing. Tr. at 436:5-440:23.

Witnesses at Trial

Henry Bradley

15. In 1993 and 1994, Mr. Bradley resided at 775 Riverside Drive. Tr. at 45:7-9. After initially funding Mr. Bradley's housing, DASIS closed his case without notice in February, 1994. Tr. at 50:16-51:1. See P.Ex. 33. Mr. Bradley sought a conference with DASIS, but was refused and instead had to file for a fair hearing. The fair hearing decision in his favor ordered DASIS to reopen the case, pay the benefits due retroactively, and to notify Mr. Bradley about any further decisions. Tr. at 51:20-53:2.

16. Despite the fair hearing decision, DASIS did not pay the rent arrears and Mr. Bradley lost his apartment. Tr. at 53:9-14. During this time, Mr. Bradley's Medicaid was not active, and he was unable to maintain his medication regimen. Tr. at 54:1-4.

17. In November 1994, DASIS did pay the overdue benefits to Mr. Bradley. However, DASIS then immediately closed his case again without notice.*fn2 Tr. at 54:14-55:23. During this time, DASIS knew where to reach Mr. Bradley. 56:7-14. See Pl.Ex. 33.

18. From November 1994 to April 1995, Mr. Bradley was without shelter allowance, cash assistance, food stamps, or medical assistance. During this time without public benefits, Mr. Bradley relied primarily on church charity in order to live. Again he was unable to maintain his medication regimen for this time period, and his health deteriorated from the constant worry about day-to-day survival. Tr. at 56:25-57:20. See Def. Ex. S at ¶¶ 8, 24.

19. Each time Mr. Bradley won a fair hearing decision, DASIS employees would direct Mr. Bradley to take his complaints to a noncompliance center to file a complaint. Mr. Bradley was forced to wait upon arrival and would eventually receive a computer printout that would describe what should be done to achieve DASIS' compliance. Then, he would be instructed by the staff to take the printout to the liaison office and to await further contact. This further contact never occurred. Mr. Bradley would do this once every twenty or thirty days with no result. Tr. at 58:21-59:11.

20. Although Mr. Bradley sought DASIS' assistance in securing a permanent apartment, no help was forthcoming. When he independently found an apartment, he brought the lease to his case manager at DASIS shortly before mid-August 1995; Mr. Bradley understood that his application would be processed. Tr. at 59:17-60:12. Instead, his case was closed for a third time, without notice, on August 14, 1995. Mr. Bradley did not learn of this closure until he discovered that he lost the apartment because DASIS had not processed the application. Tr. at 61:21-62:8.

21. Mr. Bradley again contacted more than twenty people at DASIS in an attempt to have a conference and avoid the delays caused by seeking a fair hearing and then seeking to force compliance with the decisions; DASIS refused him every time without explanation. Tr. at 63:3-14. From August 1995 to July 1996, Mr. Bradley did not receive any benefits. Mr. Bradley survived by depending on different charitable organizations and churches. His Medicaid was affected by the case closing and he was not able to follow his medication regime for over two years. As a result, his health deteriorated, affecting his vision, and multiplying his regimen from 3 tablets per day to seventeen tablets three times per day. Tr. at 64:18-65:23. See Def. Ex. S at ¶ 24.

22. Mr. Bradley sought a fair hearing and received a favorable determination in July, 1996. DASIS was ordered to restore his benefits retroactively, reversing the discontinuance of his medical assistance benefits and food stamps. However, in September 1996 DASIS complied with the decision for only one day and then closed the case the next day for a fourth time without notice to Mr. Bradley. Tr. at 69:14-70:15.

23. Mr. Bradley did not know why his case was closed yet again. Tr. at 71:6-15. In questioning different people at DASIS, he received different answers regarding his case status. Tr. at 71:25-72:12. When he sought help from the noncompliance unit, he received the same chain of instructions as before: receive a computer printout from the noncompliance unit, deliver it to the liaison unit and await contact. As before, that contact never came. Tr. at 73:2-25. See Pl.Ex. 69.

24. Mr. Bradley's complaints to the noncompliance unit in Albany did not resolve the issue. Tr. at 77:16-20; 78:1-9. See Pl.Ex. 70. Mr. Bradley did not seek another fair hearing in 1996 or 1997 because DASIS employees told him that it was unnecessary and useless to seek a new fair hearing merely to enforce the original decision. Tr. at 78:24-79:21.

25. In 1996, DASIS approved rental assistance for an apartment for Mr. Bradley but failed to make payments after he moved into the apartment. Tr. at 85:12-24. As a result, Mr. Bradley was forced to pay the rent out of his social security payments, and to get by otherwise with almost no income. Tr. at 88:3-19. Finally in April 1998, Mr. Bradley received notice from DASIS that they would comply with the 1996 fair hearing order and repay part of the back rent that had accrued. Tr. at 89:13-20. Defendants were compelled to reimburse Mr. Bradley $7,132.00 in public assistance benefits that defendants wrongfully withheld during the period from July 1, 1995 to April 12, 1998, almost three years of welfare benefits. Tr. at 121-22. However, DASIS did not repay over four thousand dollars in rent that Mr. Bradley paid out of his SSI payments.*fn3 Tr. at 89:13-20, 121:8-122:6. See Pl. Exs. 73, 51, 38.

26. The same April 1998 letter from the noncompliance unit stated that Mr. Bradley would receive the food stamps due from August 1996 until March 1998. During this time without food stamps, Mr. Bradley was forced to go from church to church in search of food. However, even after April 1998, Mr. Bradley did not receive his food stamps consistently. Tr. at 89:25-90:19. See Pl.Ex. 73.

28. Before Mr. Bradley was allowed back to DASIS, he received another letter from a Mark Limerick of DASIS stating that, in order to become a client, he had to resubmit documents he had already submitted to DASIS. Mr. Limerick arranged to meet Mr. Bradley at his home to get the paperwork but failed to show up for the appointment. Mr. Bradley then went to DASIS' office in person and resubmitted the documents. Tr. at 96:24-97:24. Although Mr. Limerick told Mr. Bradley that the transfer back to DASIS would take a week, Mr. Bradley was not transferred back for three to four weeks. 99:1-3. See Pl.Ex. 56.

29. In 1998, DASIS sent Mr. Bradley notice of an award of food stamps for the month of September only. Tr. at 104:10-12. The same day, Mr. Bradley received a letter stating that DASIS intended to terminate his public assistance on September 11, 1998, and to reduce his food stamps to only ten dollars per month. Tr. at 105:17-106:16. No one at DASIS could explain to Mr. Bradley why the notices were sent. Tr. at 107:7-10. See Pl. Exs. 64, 62.

30. In response, Mr. Bradley requested a fair hearing. On September 8, 1998, the hearing officer reversed DASIS' computation of benefits and directed DASIS to restore lost public assistance and food stamp benefits retroactive to August 1996. Tr. at 110:9-23. Despite the fair hearing decision, DASIS did not restore the lost housing benefits, and has not paid for the lost benefits since then. Nor did DASIS pay a nutrition and transportation allowance following this decision. Tr. at 114:11-20. See Pl.Ex. 67 at 5.

31. Mr. Bradley then received a notice informing him that DASIS intended to close his public assistance case yet again on September 15, 1998, for reason "21-5." Tr. at 111:9-14, 111:21-112:6. No one at DASIS could explain what the numerical notation meant. Tr. at 112:13-113:14. See Pl.Ex. 66.

32. Mr. Bradley first sought to gain compliance with the 1998 fair hearing decision by following instructions to contact the noncompliance unit and take their printouts to the liaison office, where he was told that he would be contacted. Mr. Bradley was never contacted. Tr. at 114:9-115:9. After he contacted the State compliance unit, a director at that unit told him that he would be contacted when compliance was achieved. Mr. Bradley was never again contacted about compliance with the fair hearing, and the retroactive benefits were never paid. Tr. at 117:18-118:6. See Pl.Ex. 74.

33. DASIS' own records noted that in May 1998 Mr. Bradley's case was open and "in fine shape," but then closed as of October 1998. This notation added that sufficient income to meet needs should not have caused the closure, since Mr. Bradley's income had not changed. The discrepancy was not explained. Tr. at 119:8-120:5, 120:9-21. See Pl.Ex. 45.

34. In 1999, Mr. Bradley brought in a lease with a request for moving expenses, and a supervisor at DASIS accompanied him to view the apartment. However, a few weeks later, in May 1999, Mr. Bradley's case was closed without notice for a fifth time. Tr. at 125:9-23. Again Mr. Bradley ...

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