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November 9, 2001


The opinion of the court was delivered by: Keenan, Judge



This is an application for a preliminary injunction under 42 U.S.C. § 6972, the Resource Conservation And Recovery Act ("RCRA"). Plaintiffs seek mandatory injunctive relief to compel the United States Postal Service ("USPS") to shut-down and decontaminate the Morgan Processing and Distribution Center ("Morgan"), to test the James A. Farley postal facility ("JAF"), and to test all "downstream" postal facilities that are serviced by Morgan.

By order of November 9, 2001, this Court denied the application to shut down Morgan, but directed that JAF be tested immediately. In that order, I stated that a full Opinion would follow and this is that Opinion.

Plaintiffs seek this relief because in October 2001 anthrax testing revealed the presence of anthrax spores on five pieces of mail-sorting equipment on the third floor in the south building of the Morgan Facility. Morgan is a building complex located between 28th and 30th Streets and 9th and 10th Avenues on the westside of Manhattan. The south building runs from 28th to 29th Streets and has six work floors plus office space on the top floors. (Tr. 65).*fn1

Anthrax is a virulent infectious disease caused by the bacterium "bacillus anthracus." (Tr. 148). The bacillus can be carried in spores existing in powder form and can cause death. The anthrax contamination at Morgan likely came from anthrax-laced letters that were sent to Tom Brokaw at NBC News and The New York Post, which were processed at the Morgan Facility. Morgan is the largest central mail-processing facility in the New York City area and JAF is adjacent to Morgan and connected to it by tunnel.

Standard For A Mandatory Preliminary Injunction

To obtain a preliminary injunction, a party seeking such relief must establish that: (1) the injunction is necessary to prevent irreparable harm, and (2) either (a) a likelihood of success on the merits, or (b) a sufficiently serious question going to the merits of the claim as to make it fair ground for litigation, and that a balance of the hardships tips decidedly in favor of the moving party. See Malkentzov v. DeBuono, 102 F.3d 50, 54 (2d Cir. 1996). Where an injunction is mandatory, i.e., its terms would alter, rather than preserve, the status quo by requiring some positive act, see Tom Doherty Assocs. Inc. v. Saban Entm't, Inc., 60 F.3d 27, 34 (2d Cir. 1995), the moving party must meet a higher standard than ordinarily required by "clearly" showing that he is entitled to the relief sought, or that "extreme or very serious damage" will result from a denial of the injunction. Phillip v. Fairchild Univ., 118 F.3d 131, 133 (2d Cir. 1997). See also Brewer v. West Irondequoit Cent. Sch. Dist., 212 F.3d 738, 743-44 (2d Cir. 2000); Wilson v. Amoco, 989 F. Supp. 1159, 1171 (D. Wy. 1998). In this case, both sides agree that a mandatory injunction is at issue relative to the closing of the Morgan Facility.

Findings of Fact

An evidentiary hearing was conducted on November 6, 7, 8 and 9, 2001, at which six witnesses testified for the plaintiffs and four witnesses for the USPS. For plaintiffs were William Smith, William Bachmann, Dennis O'Neil, Eckardt Johanning, M.D., Edward Olmsted and Jeanne Mager Stellman, PhD. Stephen Ostroff, M.D., David Solomon, Robert Daruk and Tom Cash testified for the defense.

Events of September 11, 2001 and thereafter recall a similar situation in our history. September 11, 2001, like December 7, 1941, "is a date that will live in infamy," and as we have learned since the 11th there is real concern amongst us for safety. Adding to our worries are the recent bioterrorist attacks involving anthrax-contaminated letters sent through the Nation's mail system. Tragically, four Americans have died from anthrax poisoning since September 11th and several others have become ill from it. Postal workers and others who handle our mail understandably are afraid. But what we cannot allow is for that fear to grow into unreasoned panic. For what we have to fear now, more than anything else, is panic. As President George W. Bush said in his speech to the Nation on November 8, 2001: "We will not give in to exaggerated fears or passing rumors. We will rely on good judgment and good, old common sense."

Life necessarily entails risks and the risk here is minimal compared to the harm that would be caused by shutting down the Morgan Facility. Morgan processes "over 13 million pieces of mail a day," according to Robert Daruk, its plant manager, (Tr. 450), and is the largest industrial facility in Manhattan. (Tr. 446).

The Court finds that the USPS has taken appropriate remedial measures to diminish any safety risk created by the presence of anthrax at the Morgan Facility. The USPS has properly responded to the presence of anthrax spores on the third floor in the Morgan Facility. Once anthrax was found in the mails, the USPS sought direction from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ("CDC"), a branch of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, as to the appropriate precautionary actions needed to protect the health and well-being of USPS employees and to reduce the risk of infection. (Tr. 383, 422-23). As a result, the USPS provided postal workers with gloves and face masks, (Tr. 515), along with instructional safety talks. (Tr. 463-65). When contaminated mail appeared in New York, the USPS tested for anthrax in areas of those New York facilities through which the tainted letters passed. (Tr. 488-89). In addition, the USPS conducted anthrax testing of employees who worked on the processing and delivery routes along which the contaminated letters traveled. (Tr. 433-34). When anthrax spores were found on the third floor of Morgan, the USPS closed-down the affected area, again consulted with the CDC, and retained environmental clean-up specialists to clean 120,000 square feet of space. (Tr. 416-17). In consultation with the CDC, the USPS has provided and is now providing over 7000 postal workers in New York City with antibiotics that will prevent them from contracting anthrax while the affected area in the Morgan Facility is cleaned. (Tr. 439-40). This includes workers at Morgan.

From a public-health perspective, Dr. Stephen Ostroff, the Chief Epidemiologist in the Infectious Disease Center at the CDC, took the lead role in the investigation of the anthrax-tainted letters mailed to various New York media outlets. At the evidentiary hearing, Dr. Ostroff testified that, based on the scientific information available regarding these mailings (i.e., development of disease, time frames, etc.), the amount of anthrax "tracked through" Morgan does not "continue to pose an ongoing public health risk." (Tr. 154). Dr. Ostroff stated that if the postal workers were at risk of anthrax from processing the letters, such illness would have occurred during the time period immediately after the letters passed through the Morgan Facility, which was in mid-September. (Tr. 153-55). Because, among other factors, no New York postal worker contracted the disease during the five-week period before the CDC started its investigation of the Morgan-mail trial,*fn2 Dr. Ostroff ...

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