The opinion of the court was delivered by: DENISE COTE, District Judge
This Opinion determines that the bill of lading reflecting the
shipment of 595 cartons on eight pallets is a shipment of eight packages
for purposes of application of the $500 per package limitation of
liability in the U.S. Carriage of Goods By Sea Act ("COGSA"),
46 U.S.C. § 1300 et seq. As a result of this ruling, potential damages in this
action are limited to $4,000.00. Background
The following facts are undisputed. In December 2000, plaintiff DCI
Management Group, Inc. ("DCI") arranged for the shipment of frozen blood
plasma to a customer in Italy. The sale price of the shipment was
$526,254.44. On or about December 20, 2000, DCI employees loaded the
cargo into an ocean shipping container at DCI's refrigerated warehouse in
Queens Village, New York. The cargo consisted of 595 individual cartons
on a total of eight pallets. Sea Trade International, Inc. ("Sea Trade"),
which never saw the contents of the container, arranged for the
transportation of the container from the port of New York to Italy on
board the M/V MIDEN AGAN through Cosco Container Lines Co., Ltd.
("Cosco"). Each of the pallets was wrapped in plastic. DCI instructed Sea
Trade to maintain a constant temperature for the frozen cargo of no
warmer than -20° Celsius.
DCI prepared a bill of lading on Sea Trade's form for a shipment from
the port of New York with discharge in Italy. Under the bill of lading's
column for "NO. OF PKGS.," DCI entered "1 (ONE)." In the column
immediately to the right, entitled "DESCRIPTION OF PACKAGES AND GOODS,"
DCI entered "20FT REEFER CONTAINER SAID TO CONTAIN 595 CARTONS ON 8
PALLETS:." Beneath that entry, DCI entered "RECOVERED PLASMA SINGLE
DONOR, FRESH FROZEN."
In a March 28, 2001 facsimile regarding the failed shipment, Howard S. Cherry, the CFO for DCI, stated that "THAT THERE WERE 8
PALLETS AND EACH PALLET WAS WRAPPED WITH PLASTIC WRAP SO THE BOXES WOULD
NOT MOVE IN TRANSIT." In another communication dated May 14, 2001, which
discussed the unsuccessful delivery, Mr. Cherry stated that "595 CARTONS
WERE SHIPPED ON 8 PALLETS. EACH PALLET WAS WRAPPED IN PLASTIC SHEETING TO
PREVENT THE CARTONS FROM SHIFTING WHILE IN TRANSIT." In an affidavit
submitted in this litigation, Mr. Cherry stated that the "purpose of
listing the individual number of cartons on the bill of lading was to
notify both our customer and the ocean carrier as to the precise quantity
of cargo loaded in the container."
The bill of lading issued for the shipment provided DCI with the
opportunity to avoid the $500 per package limitation set by the COGSA by
declaring the full value of the cargo on the bill of lading and by paying
an additional freight charge in connection therewith.*fn1 DCI did not
declare the full value of the cargo to Sea Trade on the bill of lading, did not pay an ad valorem freight
rate to secure full coverage for the value of the cargo in the event of a
casualty, and therefore did not contract with Sea Trade for a greater
limitation of liability than that provided by COGSA.
The bill of lading also contained DCI's instructions that the
temperature of the cargo should be "maintained at -20 deg.C or below at
all times." Upon discharge of the container from the M/V MIDEN AGAN in
Italy, the Italian Ministry of Health refused to allow the blood plasma
to enter the country because the container's internal temperature records
indicated that the temperatures had risen significantly above -20 degrees at several
points during the transit of the cargo. Consequently, DCI submitted an
insurance claim under its policy to Continental Insurance Co.
("Continental"), who compensated DCI in the amount of $330,000.
DCI and Continental commenced this action on January 17, 2003, against
the ocean vessels in rem that carried the cargo from New York
to Italy, as well as the vessel owners and bill of lading issuers under
COGSA. The vessel owners never appeared and/or were not served, nor were
the vessels arrested. Consequently, the action proceeded against
defendant Cosco as issuer of the master ocean bill of lading and Sea
Trade, the non-vessel operating common carrier and issuer of its own
house bill of lading. On October 23, Cosco's unopposed motion to dismiss
the claims against it was granted, based on a mandatory jurisdiction
clause in its bill of lading requiring any action against it to be
brought before the Shanghai Maritime Court in China.
In November 2003, plaintiffs and Sea Trade filed cross-motions for
partial summary judgment on the discrete issue of whether the bill of
lading reflects carriage of 595 packages or eight packages for the
purposes of application of the $500 per package limitation in COGSA.
Plaintiffs argue that the 595 cartons of the blood plasma were the COGSA
packages, and thus, they are entitled to damages of up to $297,500. Defendants argue
that the eight pallets on which the 595 cartons were shipped were the
COGSA packages, and thus damages are limited to $4,000. By letter of
April 21, 2004, DCI and Sea Trade agreed to have these cross-motions for
summary judgment on Sea Trade's seventh affirmative defense of limitation
of liability pursuant to COGSA, 46 U.S.C. § 1304(5), converted to a
trial based on the record presented through these motions.*fn2
Section 1304(5) of COGSA provides that a carrier*fn3 shall not be
liable for loss of, or damage to, cargo in an amount greater than $500
per package unless a higher value is declared by the shipper and inserted
into the bill of lading, or the parties agree to a higher limit.*fn4
46 U.S.C. § 1304(5). Thus, if a shipper wishes "to protect its interest in the cargo beyond the
package limitation amount, it ought to have contracted for that right."
Thyssen, Inc. v. S/S Eurounity, 21 F.3d 533, 541 (2d Cir.
1994). See also Aluminios Pozuelo Ltd. v. S.S. Navigator,
407 F.2d 152, 155-56 (2d Cir. 1968).
The dual purposes of the COGSA damage limitation provision are to
prevent carriers from using their superior bargaining power to reduce
their liability to insignificant amounts; and to permit the parties to
"ascertain at the time of contract when additional coverage was needed,
place the risk of additional loss upon one or the other, and thus avoid
the pains of litigation."*fn5 Mitsui & Co. v. Am. Export Lines, Inc., 636 F.2d 807,
814-15 (2d Cir. 1981) (citation omitted). Nevertheless, "[n]either the
statute nor its legislative history provides any clue as to the meaning
of `package' in the Act." Monica Textile Corp. v. S.S. Tana,
952 F.2d 636, 638 (2d Cir. 1991). The 1968 Protocol To Amend the
International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law
Relating to BILLS OF LADING (the "Visby Amendments") addresses the effect
of containerization on package limitation clauses and sheds light on the
meaning of "packages." The Visby Amendments deem the smaller units in a
shipment to be the "packages" when (a) they are packed in or on larger
units, such as containers or pallets, and (b) they are enumerated in the
bill of lading.*fn6 The Visby Amendments, however, are not law in the
United States because while the United States signed the agreement, it has not acceded to, or ratified the Visby
Amendments.*fn7 See 6 Benedict on Admiralty, Intro-24 (7th ed.
2004); Yang Minq, 672 F.2d at 1063 (the Visby Amendments do
"not replace COGSA"); Mitsui, 636 F.2d at 821.
The Second Circuit has defined a COGSA package as "a class of cargo,
irrespective of size, shape or weight, to which some packaging
preparation for transportation has been made which facilitates handling,
but which does not necessarily conceal or completely enclose the goods."
Yang Ming, 672 F.2d 1055, 1057-55 (2d Cir. 1982) (citation
omitted). This definition is obviously "broad enough to include a wide
range" of items. Nedllovd Rotterdam, 759 F.2d at 1012. Finally,
the Second Circuit has dictated that the question of what constitutes the
COGSA package "is largely and in the first instance a matter of contract
interpretation." Allied Chemical Int'l Corp. v. Companhia de Navecracao Lloyd Brasileiro, 775 F.2d 476, 485 (2d Cir.
Any search for the intent of the contracting parties must begin with
the bill of lading. See id. In determining the number of COSGA
packages in a bill of lading, courts "adopt the unit of packaging
unambiguously identified in the bill of lading." Segruros "Illimani"
S.A. v. M/V Popi P., 929 F.2d 89, 94 (2d Cir. 1991). For example,
despite the fact that stacks of ingots were not COGSA packages since the
ingots "were not sufficiently wrapped, bundled, or tied," because the
bill of lading represented that the ...