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September 2, 2005.

COURTNEY LINDE, et al., Plaintiffs,
ARAB BANK, PLC, Defendant. PHILIP LITLE, et al., Plaintiffs, v. ARAB BANK, PLC, Defendant. ROBERT L. COULTER, SR., et al., Plaintiffs, v. ARAB BANK, PLC, Defendant.

The opinion of the court was delivered by: NINA GERSHON, District Judge


Plaintiffs in the above captioned suits are United States citizens, or their estates, survivors, and heirs, who have been victims of terrorist attacks in Israel since September 2000. The sole defendant in all three cases, and in four additional suits filed by separate groups of plaintiffs,*fn1 is a financial institution headquartered in Jordan with a federally licensed and regulated branch office in New York. Plaintiffs bring several claims under the civil remedy provision of the Anti-Terrorism Act ("ATA"), 18 U.S.C. § 2333, and bring common law claims for intentional infliction of emotional distress. The Linde plaintiffs' motion for a preliminary injunction, which was premised on the fifth claim for relief in the Linde First Amended Complaint, was denied on November 29, 2004. See Linde v. Arab Bank, PLC, 353 F.Supp.2d 327 (E.D.N.Y. 2004). Defendant now brings motions to dismiss the complaints in these three suits under Rule 12(b)(6) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure and on forum non conveniens grounds. (The Linde plaintiffs and the Litle plaintiffs have each filed a First Amended Complaint, while the Coulter plaintiffs have filed only a complaint. For purposes of this opinion, all three documents will be referred to simply as "complaints.")


All three complaints contain nearly identical allegations regarding Arab Bank's conduct and each posit the same theories of culpability. The factual allegations concerning each plaintiff's injuries are, of course, unique to each plaintiff. To the extent these factual differences impact the legal analysis, they will be explained separately below. The following is a summary of the allegations common to all three complaints. The alleged facts are assumed to be true for the purposes of defendant's motions to dismiss.*fn2 Plaintiffs allege that, on September 29, 2000, following the collapse of peace negotiations between the State of Israel and the Palestinian Authority, Palestinian terrorist groups launched what quickly became known in Arab parlance as the Al Aqsa Intifada or Intifada Al Quds — the "Second Intifada" in western parlance. This Second Intifada was marked from the outset by numerous acts of extreme violence, including multiple murders of civilians by Palestinian terrorist groups. These terrorists utilize suicide bombers as their preferred method of carrying out such attacks. The suicide bombers are regarded as martyrs by the terrorist groups and their sympathizers.*fn3 The objectives of the Second Intifada include intimidating and coercing the civilian population of Israel and attempting to influence the policy of the Israeli government to withdraw from territory it presently controls.

The complaints identify the Islamic Resistance Movement ("HAMAS"), the Palestinian Islamic Jihad ("PIJ"), and the Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigade ("AAMB") as prominent terrorist organizations operating in Palestinian controlled territory. Each of these organizations has been designated as a Foreign Terrorist Organization ("FTO") by the United States Secretary of State. The complaints also identify several charities that plaintiffs allege operate as front organizations for HAMAS, assisting it in carrying out its terrorist activities. These include Al-Ansar Charity, Ramalla Charitable Committee, Tulkarem Charitable Committee, the Islamic Association (Gaza) a/k/a Al Jamay Al-Islamiya, Al Mujama Al-Islami, Nablus Charitable Committee, Jenin Charitable Committee, and Islamic Charity Society of Hebron. Plaintiffs allege that these charitable organizations are in reality agents of HAMAS. Although these organizations hold themselves out as legitimate charities and collect money in the name of humanitarian purposes, they in fact route large sums of money to support the violent activities of HAMAS and other terrorist organizations. These organizations thus serve as agents of HAMAS and are able both to solicit and to launder money on HAMAS's behalf. They raise money to support all areas of HAMAS's operations. Several of the charities maintain bank accounts at Arab Bank through which the Bank provides them with financial services, such as receiving deposits and processing wire transfers. The complaints allege that the Bank knows that these organizations are fronts which support HAMAS's terrorist activities, and that the Bank's continued provision of banking services to these groups facilitates their illegal activities. The complaints identify one Arab Bank account number that plaintiffs allege belongs to HAMAS itself, and which HAMAS uses to collect funds in support of violent activities.*fn4

On or about October 16, 2000, the Saudi Committee In Support of the Intifada Al Quds ("Saudi Committee") was established as a private charity registered with the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. According to the Saudi Committee, its purpose is to support the "Intifada Al Quds" and "all suffering families — the families of the martyrs and the injured Palestinians and the disabled." According to plaintiffs, the Saudi Committee constitutes a professional fundraising apparatus intended to subsidize the Palestinian terror campaign and to bankroll HAMAS and the PIJ.

The Saudi Committee furnishes what plaintiffs variously term a "comprehensive insurance death benefit" or a "universal death and dismemberment plan," consisting of a payment of $5,316.06, to the families of Palestinian terrorists killed in service of the Intifada. (At oral argument, plaintiffs explained that this sum is the U.S. Dollar equivalent of 20,000 Saudi Riyals.) Lesser benefits are provided when the terrorist is either injured or captured by Israeli security forces. Although plaintiffs sometimes refer to these payments as "insurance" benefits, the scheme is not alleged to be a traditional pooled risk insurance plan, where individuals pay premiums against the risk of some future event. Rather, plaintiffs are alleging that the plan is, in effect, a reward for perpetrators of suicide attacks. Families claim this reward by obtaining an official certification of their deceased relative's status as a martyr, which includes an individualized martyr identification number. In order to obtain this certificate, families must provide the Saudi Committee with the martyr's name, personal information, and details concerning the date and manner of death.

Plaintiffs allege that the Bank is the exclusive administrator of the death and dismemberment benefit plan. Once the Saudi Committee prepares a list of eligible martyrs, the list is provided to the Bank. Arab Bank, in consultation with the Saudi Committee and local representatives of HAMAS, finalizes the lists, maintains a database of persons eligible to receive benefits under the death and dismemberment plan, and opens a dollar account for each beneficiary. Families who choose to collect the benefit must present to the Bank an official certification from the Palestinian Authority that includes the individualized identification number of the martyr. If the documentation proves satisfactory, Arab Bank issues a receipt to the designated recipient of the benefit. Plaintiffs allege that these payments create an incentive to engage in terrorist acts by rewarding all Palestinian terrorists, regardless of their affiliation with a particular group.

The complaints detail the numerous terrorist attacks in which plaintiffs themselves or their decedents were injured. For the sake of brevity, only one attack from each complaint will be described. The Linde complaint describes an attack on May 18, 2003. On that day, plaintiff Steven Averbach, a citizen of the United States and of Israel, was seated on a commuter bus heading toward Jerusalem when a man dressed as a religious Jew boarded the bus and then detonated explosives. Seven people were killed and twenty injured in the attack, including plaintiff Averbach, who sustained severe damage to his spinal cord when a ball bearing that had been packed in the explosives lodged between his C3 and C4 vertebrae, rendering him a quadriplegic. HAMAS claimed responsibility for the attack, and the bomber was later identified by his family as Bassem Jamil Tarkrouri.

The Litle complaint describes the bombing of Bus No. 2 in Jerusalem on August 19, 2003, from which a number of plaintiffs derive their injuries. HAMAS claimed responsibility for the bombing, in which plaintiff Mendy Reinitz, a citizen of the United States and of Israel, sustained shrapnel wounds in the shoulder and back and underwent surgery. Although some shrapnel was removed, some will remain in his body for the rest of his life. Mendy's brother, Yissocher Dov Reinitz, and father, Mordechai Reinitz, were also riding the bus that day; both were killed in the attack. Other relatives are also plaintiffs.

The Coulter complaint describes the suicide bombing of a Sbarro pizza restaurant on August 9, 2001, in Jerusalem. Fifteen people were killed and approximately 130 injured in this attack, in which a suicide bomber detonated a bomb packed with nails and metal bolts. The claims of the Nachenberg, Finer, Green, Greenbaum, and Danzig families, brought in the Coulter complaint, stem from this attack. The bomber was identified as Izz Ad-Din Shuhail Ahmad Al-Masri, a terrorist acting on behalf of HAMAS. The Al-Masri family received two payments into an Arab Bank account following this act, one from the Saudi Committee, totaling $5,316.16 (or 20,000 Saudi Riyals), and one from the Al-Ansar charity, totaling $6000.

All three complaints describe a specific benefit transaction for a suicide bomber named Dia A-Tawil. After perpetrating a suicide bombing attack on behalf of HAMAS on March 27, 2001, he was designated Palestinian Authority martyr number 449. His father, Hussien Mohamed Favah Tawil, presented the martyr certification to the Bank and received a confirmatory receipt stating that the benefit was paid to his Arab Bank account in Ramallah.

Plaintiffs also allege that funds raised by the Saudi Committee in Saudi currency, and deposited in the Committee's Arab Bank accounts, are then routed through the Bank's New York branch office, where they are converted to U.S. dollars, since Saudi currency cannot easily be converted into Israeli currency; the funds are then transferred to Arab Bank branches located in the West Bank in Israel and used to fund terrorist activities.

Based on these allegations, the Linde plaintiffs assert the following claims: Count One alleges that Arab Bank aided and abetted the murder, attempted murder, and serious bodily injury of United States nationals, in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 2332(a), (b), and (c), by providing substantial assistance to terrorists through the administration of the universal death and dismemberment plan for families of suicide bombers, and through the provision of other financial services. Count One alleges that Arab Bank "knew or recklessly disregarded" that it was providing material support for acts of international terrorism, that the charities were fronts that played a major role in raising funds for HAMAS, and that the Bank's activities substantially assisted dangerous criminal acts.

Count Two alleges that Arab Bank conspired to commit murder and attempted murder, in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 2332(b), by agreeing to "perform extraordinary banking and administrative services for the Saudi Committee, Hamas, the PIJ, and AAMB," including exclusive administration of the death and dismemberment benefit plan, in order to "support terrorist activities pursuant to a common scheme to encourage and incentivize acts of terrorism."

Count Three alleges that Arab Bank provided material support to terrorists, in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 2339A, by providing "extraordinary financial and administrative services," including exclusive administration of the death and dismemberment benefit plan to the families of suicide bombers and other terrorists.

Count Four alleges that Arab Bank provided material support to a designated foreign terrorist organization, in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 2339B, by knowingly transferring funds from and to agents of HAMAS.*fn5 Plaintiffs further allege that, without the Bank's assistance in this regard, it would have been substantially more difficult to implement the death and dismemberment benefit plan.

Count Five alleges that the Bank's failure to comply with regulatory requirements to retain the assets of designated foreign terrorist organizations and report them to the Secretary of State, as required by 18 U.S.C. § 2339B(a)(2), itself constitutes the provision of material support to a designated FTO.

Count Six alleges that Arab Bank provided financial services to HAMAS, the PIJ, AAMB, and the Saudi Committee by collecting funds, with the knowledge that such funds have been and will be used to facilitate acts intended to cause death or serious bodily injury to civilians, such as plaintiffs. Plaintiffs contend that these financial services constitute financing of terrorism in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 2339C. Count Seven alleges that Arab Bank's provision of banking and other services to HAMAS, the PIJ, the AAMB and other international terrorists, including administering the death and dismemberment benefit plan, was itself an act of international terrorism as defined by the ATA, in that these actions were "involved" in violent criminal acts that injured plaintiffs and appeared to be intended to coerce or intimidate the people, government policy, or government conduct of Israel. Although the complaint does not cite a specific criminal provision identifying a specific act of international terrorism defendant is alleged to have committed or aided and abetted or conspired to commit, the briefs make clear that the crimes are violations of the material support and financing provisions, Sections 2339A, 2339B, and 2339C.

Finally, Count Eight alleges claims for intentional infliction of emotional distress.

The legal claims of the Litle plaintiffs and the Coulter plaintiffs are identical, except that the Litle plaintiffs omit Count Five of the Linde complaint (which is based on defendant's failure to comply with regulatory requirements), and the Coulter complaint omits Count Eight of the Linde ...

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