The opinion of the court was delivered by: Gershon, United States District Judge.
This action is one in a series of lawsuits arising out of defendant American Airlines Inc.'s ("American's") 2003 reorganization and the activities surrounding the negotiation and ratification of the subsequent concessionary agreements with American's employees' unions. Plaintiffs are "former and retired employees of American, members of the defendant union, the Association of Professional Flight Attendants ("APFA"), and current or former members of APFA's Bargaining Unit." Plaintiffs' First Amended Consolidated Class Action Complaint, ¶ 6 ("Amended Complaint"). They bring this action to set aside what they characterize as an "unlawful and unratified agreement between American Airlines and the labor union representing its flight attendants . . . ." Amended Complaint ¶ 1. Plaintiffs originally filed three related actions in this court, Ford v. Association of Professional Flight Attendants, et al. 03-CV-4987, Lindsay v. Association of Professional Flight Attendants, 04-CV-634, and Marcoux v. American Airlines, Inc., 04-CV-1376. The actions were consolidated, and plaintiffs filed the Consolidated Class Action Complaint on July 12, 2004, and amended it on November 30, 2004. Plaintiffs, who have not yet moved for class certification, identify four subclasses: (1) members of APFA who were entitled to vote on the ratification question, (2) members of APFA who voted in opposition to ratification, (3) members of the class who were furloughed, and (4) members of the class who have retired since the time of the alleged wrongdoing. Unless noted otherwise, plaintiffs' claims are brought on behalf of the class and all subclasses.
In addition to claims against American, the Amended Complaint asserts claims against American's parent company, AMR Corporation ("AMR") (jointly, the "Company Defendants"), as well as claims against APFA and its then-President, John Ward (jointly, the "Union Defendants"). In twenty-two Counts, plaintiffs allege violations of the Railway Labor Act, 45 U.S.C. §§ 151 et seq. ("RLA"), and the duty of fair representation ("DFR"), as well as violations of the Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act, 29 U.S.C. §§ 401 et seq. ("LMRDA"), the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act, 18 U.S.C. §§ 1961 et seq. ("RICO"), and state common law.
Company Defendants move to dismiss all of plaintiffs' state claims as preempted by federal law. Union Defendants move to dismiss someof plaintiffs' claims under the LMRDA. All defendants move to dismiss plaintiffs' claims alleging violations of RICO.
The allegations in the Amended Complaint, described below, are taken as true for the purposes of defendants' motions to dismiss.*fn1
Prior to May 1, 2003, the terms and conditions of plaintiffs' employment were governed by a collective bargaining agreement that had been in effect since November 1, 1998 (the "1998 Agreement"). The 1998 Agreement was duly ratified by union members and was implemented in accordance with the RLA. The amendable date-the earliest time that either party could require the other to enter into negotiations to modify the agreement-for the 1998 Agreement was November 30, 2004. Notwithstanding this date, American approached APFA in or around December 2002 to begin to negotiate voluntary concessions from the flight attendants. American communicated to APFA that it had been experiencing a steady financial decline that was exacerbated by the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. Citing a fragile economy, problems in the airline industry, and a large drop in air travel, American asked APFA if it would voluntarily roll back flight attendant pay increases of three percent (3%) that were scheduled for 2003. Shortly thereafter, American announced that it would need "permanent" labor cost savings of $1.8 billion per year, of which APFA members were expected to contribute $340 million, through a collectively bargained mid-term agreement, called the Restructuring Participation Agreement ("RPA"). American further represented that, to avoid bankruptcy-which carried an additional loss of $130 million in cost savings and the furlough of 2,500 more flight attendants than originally contemplated in the initial spending cuts-APFA would need to enter into the RPA with American by March 31, 2003. This deadline was later extended to April 15, 2003.
APFA's constitution requires collective bargaining agreements to be ratified by the membership. The Negotiating Committee presents the proposed agreement to the Executive Committee. If the Executive Committee accepts the agreement, it is presented to the membership for ratification. However, if the Executive Committee rejects the proposed agreement, the Negotiating Committee may present it to the Board of Directors, which has the power to override the Executive Committee's rejection and submit the proposed agreement to the membership for approval. In either event, the membership is entitled to take at least 30 days prior to voting to consider the agreement. The APFA constitution also provides for secret, mail-in, paper balloting and requires that the membership receive the complete changes to any proposed collective bargaining agreement prior to or at the start of the balloting period. An agreement is ratified and thus binding upon the membership once a majority of members in good standing vote in favor of ratification.
To meet American's April 15, 2003 deadline, APFA's Board of Directors passed a resolution on March 19, 2003, suspending the 30-day consideration period prior to the commencement of balloting and permitting the use of electronic ballots. On March 31, 2003, APFA's Negotiating Committee reached agreement with American on the final terms of the RPA, and the Executive Committee recommended presenting it to the APFA membership for ratification. The balloting was scheduled to begin the first week of April, and end on April 15, 2003.
Throughout the balloting period, APFA maintained a hotline that broadcast various messages purporting to provide updated information to the membership. Plaintiffs allege that these recorded messages served only to present false and misleading information to the APFA members regarding American's economic forecast and to pressure APFA members into ratifying the RPA by stating, among other things, that if the membership rejected the proposal, negotiations would be discontinued. Plaintiffs also suggest that APFA misrepresented its position regarding the members' ability to change their votes by stating that "[APFA] determined that it would be most in keeping with APFA's normal, prescribed voting procedures to not allow a member to change their vote." In fact, as discussed below, APFA members were permitted to change their votes during the one-day extension of voting.
Plaintiffs also allege that defendants engaged in additional activities to induce APFA members to ratify the RPA. Plaintiffs assert that defendants knew that the membership had voted to reject the RPA on April 14th and sought to exert "undue pressure and scare tactics" to get individuals who had not voted to cast ballots in favor of the RPA before the deadline. For example, defendants, among other things, called flight attendants and suggested that, if the RPA were rejected, American would declare bankruptcy; and they held "impromptu" meetings at airports to garner support for the RPA. Plaintiffs assert that these pressure tactics were targeted specifically to those flight attendants that American and APFA knew had not yet voted. Despite these efforts, on April 15, 2003, the APFA membership voted to reject the RPA, with the final tally being 9,842 against ratifying the RPA, and 9,309 for ratifying the RPA.Subsequently, American and APFA agreed to extend the voting until April 16, 2003.
During the additional day of voting, APFA allowed members who had previously voted to change their votes. Plaintiffs assert that the second round of voting was tainted by illegal electioneering practiceswhich were initiated by American and willfully ignored by APFA. These practices included American and APFA, both subtly and overtly, creating a "frenzy" and "sheer panic" among APFA members by suggesting that American would declare bankruptcy if the RPA were rejected. Defendants' objectionable conduct included placing "pop-up" notices supporting ratification on the flight services' website and providing money or a "minor gratuity" to flight attendants who had voted "No" to ratification in exchange for their changing their votes to "Yes." As a result of these efforts, 1,262 votes were cast, and the membership ratified the RPA, with the final tally being 10,761 votes in favor of ratifying the RPA, and 9,652 votes opposing ratification.
On or around April 17, 2003, it was revealed that American had, despite its precarious financial position, established a Supplemental Executive Retirement Program for its top 45 executives and cash retention bonuses for its top six executives. Upon learning of the bonus programs, defendant John Ward immediately sent a letter to American demanding that the APFA membership be given a "fresh opportunity to vote on the proposed terms of the restructuring agreement in an untainted environment." Shortly thereafter, Ward sent another letter asserting that American's "material breach of its obligation to disclose all relevant information"necessitated a reballoting. APFA's Board of Directors formalized this request by passing a resolution on April 22, 2003, directing APFA's National Ballot Committee to conduct a re-ballot.
On or around April 23, 2003, APFA and American began negotiating additional terms to the RPA. The resulting provisions shortened the life of the RPA by eight months, made the collective bargaining agreement amendable in three years, allowed pay increases in the event that American became financially viable and granted the right to substitute another concession in exchange for reinstating a previously-surrendered concession relating to the calculation of flight attendants' salaries. These additional terms, which John Ward maintained were still a "tremendous sacrifice" on APFA's behalf, were added to the RPA on April 25, 2003 by way of a letter agreement which purported to "resolve all disputes" concerning the negotiation, ratification, and effectiveness of the RPA.
The Amended Complaint contains other allegations directed expressly to the RICO claims. These will be addressed below.
All defendants having answered, they move, pursuant to Rule 12(c) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, for judgment on the pleadings dismissing certain claims in the Amended Complaint. A motion for judgment on the pleadings under Rule 12(c) is reviewed under the same standard as a Rule 12(b)(6) motion to dismiss. Burnette v. Carothers, 192 F.3d 52, 56 (2d Cir. 1999). That is, the motion should be granted only where it "appears beyond doubt that the plaintiff can prove no set of facts in support of his claim that would entitle him to relief." Cooper v.Parsky, 140 F.3d 433, 440 (2d. Cir. 1998). Plaintiffs' factual allegations must be accepted as true, Zinermon v. Burch, 494 U.S. 113, 118 (1990), and the court must draw all inferences in favor of plaintiffs. Thomas v. City of New York, 143 F.3d. 31, 37 (2d Cir. 1998).
In addition to their claims under the RLA and the DFR, plaintiffs, relying on the same factual allegations which form the bases of their RLA and DFR claims, assert nine state common law claims. American or the Company Defendants move to dismiss the eight claims directed against them.*fn2 Count Ten alleges that American breached individual employer contracts with its employees by interfering with their rights under RLA Section 2, Third and Fourth, to designate and be represented by bargaining representatives of their choice. See 45 U.S.C. § 152, Third and Fourth. Counts Twelve and Sixteen allege that the Company Defendants intentionally interfered with contractual relations between APFA and its members by causing APFA to breach certain provisions of its constitution and bylaws relating to balloting and electioneering practices. Counts Seventeen and Eighteen assert breach of implied contract claims against the Company Defendants based on an implied duty not to interfere with internal union balloting. Counts Nineteen and Twenty assert unjust enrichment claims against the Company Defendants for allegedly wrongful conduct in obtaining APFA members' approval of the RPA. Finally, Count Twenty alleges that the Company Defendants engaged in fraud and misrepresentation during the RPA negotiations by falsely communicating that American was on the verge of bankruptcy and by failing to disclose material facts relating to its financial state. Like plaintiffs' claims under the RLA and the DFR, all of these state law claims arise out of occurrences during the negotiation and ratification of the collectively bargained RPA. The Company Defendants argue that they are therefore preempted by federal law.
The RLA provides a comprehensive federal regulatory scheme for the resolution of disputes in the rail and air transportation industries. Specifically, the RLA governs the process of negotiation of "agreements concerning rates of pay, rules and working conditions" between carriers and their employees. 45 U.S.C. §§ 152, 156. It protects the right of employees to designate the bargaining representative of their choosing and imposes obligations on carriers and unions with respect to the negotiation of agreements and the settlement of disputes. See 45 U.S.C. § 152. Under the RLA, disputes between labor and management are categorized as either "major" or "minor". See Consolidated Rail Corp. v. Railway Labor Exec. Ass'n., et al., 491 U.S. 299, 302 (1989) ("Conrail"). "Major" disputes seek to create contractual rights; they involve disputes arising out of the formation of collective bargaining agreements or efforts to secure such agreements. See id.; 45 U.S.C. §§ 152, Seventh and 156.*fn3 This category of disputes looks to the "acquisition of rights for the future, not to assertion of rights claimed to have vested in the past." Elgin, J. & E.R. Co. v. Burley, 325 U.S. 711, 723 (1945). Major disputes arise only when there is no existing collective bargaining agreement in place or where a party seeks to ...