The opinion of the court was delivered by: Denise Cote, District Judge
Juicy Couture, Inc. and L.C. Licensing, Inc. ("Couture") purveyors of women's clothing and related items, have sued L'Oreal USA, Inc. and Luxury Products, LLC ("Lancôme"), a maker and seller of cosmetics and fragrances, for trademark infringement. Couture asserts rights in its registered marks JUICY, JUICY COUTURE and CHOOSE JUICY. It asserts common law rights in the marks Juicy Pop Princess, Be Juicy, Wear Juicy, The Joy of Juicy and Juicy Girls Rule. It claims that Lancôme infringed its rights by adopting the mark Juicy Wear as a product name, and by using the words juicy, Juicy Pop and Juicy Gossip in advertising and promotions in mid-2003 and mid-2004 in connection with two in-store promotions of Lancôme products.
Couture seeks damages based on the sales of Juicy Wear. It also seeks an injunction preventing Lancôme from using Juicy Wear as the name or trademark for any product; using juicy alone or in combination with another word or phrase that means apparel or has an apparel connotation; using juicy alone or in combination with any word or phrase that means bags or connotes bags; promoting, advertising or marketing its line of Juicy products with signs, displays, or advertising which conspicuously or dominantly present the word juicy alone or in combination with another word which in the aggregate is not the trademark or name of a Lancôme Juicy product.
This Opinion presents the findings of fact and conclusions of law following a bench trial held between April 4 and April 12, 2006. For the reasons described below, judgment is entered for Lancôme.
Couture's complaint, filed on September 9, 2004, alleged seven claims: trademark infringement, false designation of origin and unfair competition, and trademark dilution under the Lanham Act; deceptive acts and practices and trademark dilution under New York General Business Law; and trademark infringement and unfair competition under New York common law. The complaint based these claims on Lancôme's sale of six products: JUICY TUBES, JUICY ROUGE, Juicy Tubes Pop, Juicy Crayon, Juicy Vernis, and Juicy Wear, and Lancôme's use of Juicy and Juicy Pop to describe "a line of cosmetics and fragrances."
On November 16, 2005, following the close of discovery, Lancôme moved for partial summary judgment precluding a monetary recovery, arguing that Couture could not show that Lancôme had acted in bad faith, an essential component of any claim for damages. On December 1, Lancôme filed a separate motion for summary judgment based on its affirmative defense of laches, relying on Couture's failure to oppose Lancôme's registration of the marks JUICY TUBES and JUICY ROUGE and failure generally to oppose Lancôme's development of its line of Juicy products. On January 27, 2006, Lancôme moved for summary judgment on the claims of trademark dilution and deceptive acts and practices under New York state law. On February 10, the parties stipulated to a voluntary dismissal of those claims, mooting Lancôme's January 27 motion.
Oral argument on Lancôme's remaining summary judgment motions was held on February 15. At oral argument, Couture substantially narrowed its remaining claims. With the exception of Juicy Wear, it withdrew all claims that Lancôme's individual products infringed Couture's trademarks.*fn1 While Couture maintained the position that the marketing of Lancôme's products was infringing, it narrowed those claims to focus on the Juicy Gossip and Juicy Pop promotional events in 2003 and 2004. While neither promotion was precisely identified in the complaint, some elements of the promotions were described, particularly the distribution of certain gifts with purchase during those events.
Couture's demand for a jury trial was struck in an Opinion and Order dated March 7. Juicy Couture v. L'Oreal, USA, Inc., 04 Civ. 7203 (DLC), 2006 WL 559675, at *1 (S.D.N.Y. Mar. 7, 2006). In a separate Order, also dated March 7, both of Lancôme's motions for summary judgment were denied, and the trial long scheduled to begin on April 17, was converted to a non-jury trial scheduled to begin on April 4.
The trial was conducted in accordance with the Court's Individual Practices and the March 7 Order. The parties filed a Joint Pretrial Order and proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law on March 23. The parties also served affidavits containing the direct testimony of all their witnesses, as well as copies of all the exhibits and deposition testimony which they intended to offer as evidence in chief at trial.
With its Pretrial Order submissions, Couture presented affidavits constituting the direct testimony of Gela Taylor ("Taylor"), Co-President and Co-Founder of Juicy Couture, Inc.; Janey Lopaty ("Lopaty"), Vice President of Public Relations for Juicy Couture, Inc.; Anita Jacobson ("Jacobson"), Director of New Business Development and formerly Director of Marketing and Licensing for Juicy Couture, Inc.; Theresa Pastor ("Pastor"), a paralegal with the law firm Kramer, Levin, Naftalis & Frankel LLP; and Milan Chromecek ("Chromecek") and Verena Bomhard ("Bomhard"), partners with the international law firm Lovells. It also offered testimony from four experts: Philip Johnson ("Johnson"), Chief Executive Officer of Leo J. Shapiro and Associates, Inc., a market research and consulting firm; James Malackowski ("Malackowski"), President and Chief Executive Officer of Ocean Tomo, LLC, a business consulting firm; Larry Hotz ("Hotz"), President and founder of Right Angle Research, LLC, a public relations consulting firm; and Marilyn Levey ("Levey"), the principal of Levey Marketing Services, Inc., a marketing and merchandising consulting company. With the exception of Pastor, Bomhard, Chromecek and Malackowski, whom Lancôme chose not to cross-examine, and Hotz and Levey, whose testimony was struck before trial, each of these witnesses appeared at trial and was cross-examined.
Lancôme offered the testimony of Odile Roujol ("Roujol"), Deputy General Manager of Lancôme;*fn2 Louise Rosen ("Rosen"), a former Lancôme employee who served as Group Product Manager for Makeup during the development of Juicy Tubes; Austin Mathis ("Mathis"), Vice President of Accounting for L'Oreal's Luxury Products Division; Suzanne Davidowitz ("Davidowitz"), Senior Vice President Corporate Communications for L'Oreal USA, Inc.; José Monteiro ("Monteiro"), Chief Trademark Counsel of Lancôme Paris; and Jaclyn Brody ("Brody"), a paralegal at Paul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker LLP. Lancôme offered expert testimony from Jacob Jacoby, Professor of Consumer Behavior and Retail Management at New York University's Leonard N. Stern Graduate School of Business, where he holds the Merchant's Council endowed chair; Thomas Dupont, the President of D2 Research, a survey research and consulting firm; and Daniel McGavock ("McGavock"), Vice President of CRA International, a financial consulting firm. Couture chose not to cross-examine Monteiro, Brody and McGavock, and they did not appear at trial.
The parties also offered excerpts from the deposition testimony of the following individuals. Couture offered excerpts from the depositions of Angela Ahrendts, Senior Vice President of Liz Claiborne; Marie Cesbron, formerly the Assistant Vice President of Makeup Marketing for Lancôme USA; Dalia Chammas, Senior Vice President and General Manager of Lancôme USA; Edgar Huber, President of L'Oreal's Luxury Products Division; Elizabeth Park, formerly the Vice President of Makeup Marketing of Lancôme USA; and Nina White, Deputy General Manager and Senior Vice President for Lancôme USA. Lancôme offered excerpts from the depositions of Elizabeth Harrison, owner and founder of the public relations firm Harrison & Shriftman; Jennifer Hatton, Director of Finance for L.C. Licensing, Inc.; Corey Wang, a former Marketing Coordinator at Juicy Couture, Inc.; and Art Spiro, President of Liz Claiborne Cosmetics.
Prior to trial, Lancôme moved in limine to strike the testimony of Couture's experts Johnson, Malackowski, Hotz, and Levey; to preclude evidence concerning foreign trademark proceedings; to preclude the introduction of settlement communications into evidence; and to preclude evidence, testimony and argument concerning a "Juicy Collection". Lancôme's motions against Hotz and Levey were granted. Its motion against Malackowski was granted in part. Couture withdrew its arguments concerning a "Juicy Collection", and the remaining motions were denied.
Couture moved in limine to preclude Davidowitz and Mathis for failure to disclose them during fact discovery; and to preclude Lancôme from asserting an advice of counsel defense. The latter motion was granted. Couture was given the opportunity to depose Davidowitz before trial, and the former motion was otherwise denied.
The following constitutes the findings of fact.*fn3 In brief, the evidence shows that Lancôme chose the name Juicy Tubes for a lip product in 1999 without any knowledge of Couture, which was named Travis Jeans at that time, or of Couture's products. Lancôme registered the marks JUICY TUBES and later JUICY ROUGE, a name for another lip product that it introduced into the marketplace in 2003, in both France and the United States without any opposition from Couture. By 2002, Couture's business was moving beyond jeans and t-shirts and becoming more successful and well-known. In 2003, while in the process of being purchased by Liz Claiborne, Couture opposed for the first time, and only in Europe, a Lancôme trademark application for the word Juicy. Couture's founders hoped that becoming part of Liz Claiborne would allow it to expand its business beyond clothing and accessories. When settlement discussions in Europe in 2004 failed, Couture filed this lawsuit and began for the first time to oppose Lancôme's trademark applications in this country.
As it is presently configured, this case principally concerns events occurring in the United States in 2004, when Lancôme introduced its 6th product with a name that included the word Juicy --- this time a lip product called Juicy Wear. Couture objects to that product name and objects to two promotions run by Lancôme, one in 2003 and one in 2004, for other Lancôme Juicy products. Because Lancôme adopted the word Juicy in good faith and without knowledge of Couture or its goods, the story will begin with Lancôme's decision to use that mark on its cosmetics, and its development of its line of Juicy cosmetics.
Lancôme was founded by a Frenchman and launched in 1935 at the Universal Exhibition in Brussels with the introduction of five fragrances. Its founder chose the rose as the symbol for his company, and it has remained its symbol. Over time, Lancôme added makeup and skin care products. Lancôme products were introduced to the United States in the 1950's. It now sells cosmetics in 163 countries. Lancôme is a recognized and successful cosmetics name in the Untied States. Its products are sold in better department stores such as Bloomingdale's and Nieman Marcus, and specialty stores.
Lancôme products are customarily sold in the United States within the cosmetics area of the store, either at Lancôme counters or at sections where only Lancôme products are sold. Lancôme counters are staffed by Lancôme personnel who usually wear smocks that display the Lancôme name. The counters and sections also prominently display the Lancôme name and its rose design.
Lancôme uses its name and the rose design on all of its trade dress, including the packaging for its individual products.
This is true of the products at issue here. The trade dress includes silver packaging and black lettering.
B. Lancôme's Development of JUICY TUBES
In January 1999, Rosen, working in Lancôme's Paris, France headquarters, developed the concept for a high shine lip gloss in a tube. She and her team gave the project the code name: "Juicy Tubes." She and Lancôme makeup artist Fred Farrugia proposed including Juicy Tubes, a shiny and tasty lip gloss, in the Spring 2000 Pollen color collection.*fn4 The word juicy reminded Rosen of juicy fruit sweets from England, where she grew up, and she thought that the name juicy for products intended to come in the yellows and oranges of the Pollen color collection was an apt description. The tube was a small, flexible package. The company has used the word juicy for its Juicy product line to connote gloss and shine.
C. JUICY TUBES' Trademark Registration
Lancôme ordered a trademark search report in the United States for Juicy Tubes lip gloss on August 17, 1999. Searching cosmetics, soaps, pharmaceuticals, and other similar categories, it captured such widely disparate marks as LONDON TUBES and JUICE BAR. No records were found that contained both "juic" and "tube" and no records were uncovered that had any reference to Couture (or Travis Jeans).
The search did uncover a registration for cosmetics with the word juicy, specifically JUICY LIPS for lipstick (registered in 1996 to Pentech International). It also uncovered registrations for products with the word juice or a word derived from juice, such as JUICED UP for a body cleanser (registered in 1999 to Aramis Inc.), JUICE BAR for perfume (registered in 1998 to Parfums de Coeur, Ltd.), and THE JUICE for hair products (registered in 1985 to Larry Edward Clark). Image Laboratories had registered a series of marks with the word juice alone or in combination with another word for hair products. Applications were pending to register Jaguar Juice Lotion for tanning lotions, and Mossimo Juice for cologne. A search of domain names also failed to uncover Couture. Juicy.com, Juicy.net, and Juicy.org were all registered to other entities.
On September 9, Lancôme applied in France for trademark rights to use JUICY TUBES for cosmetic products, namely, lip gloss. On January 25, 2000, it made an identical application with the United States Patent and Trademark Office ("PTO"). The PTO published the mark for opposition on January 16, 2001. Couture did not oppose the registration. The mark was registered on April 10, 2001.
D. Lancôme's Marketing of JUICY TUBES
In January 2000, JUICY TUBES was included in Lancôme's Pollen color collection. In Spring 2001, JUICY TUBES was included in a second color collection, the Pinksplash color collection. After the success of these efforts, it became a permanent part of Lancôme's product line in January 2002. Beginning in June 2002, and running through 2003, Lancôme advertized JUICY TUBES in leading newspapers and women's magazines, such as Vogue and Harper's Bazaar.
E. JUICY ROUGE Trademark Registration
Lancôme next developed the product Juicy Rouge, a shiny lipstick. Lancôme ordered a full trademark search in the United States for Juicy Rouge on June 27, 2002. Unlike the search done in 1999 in connection with JUICY TUBES, this search identified an application by Travis Jeans, specifically, two identical pending trademark applications filed on February 28, 2002, for the marks Juicy Couture and Juicy Jeans in eleven classes of goods including cosmetics.
As was true for the search done for JUICY TUBES, this search also revealed several registrations for marks that included the word Juicy or Juice*fn5 and even more applications for such marks.*fn6 In addition, and of interest to this litigation because of Lancôme's adoption of the mark Juicy Wear in 2004, the search also reflects L'Oreal's own application to register a mark with the word Wear, specifically Rouge Wear in connection with liquid lipcolor. The search results also reflect that Lancôme or its affiliate L'Oreal had applied for trademarks for Juicy Crush (filed and published for opposition in 2000); Juicy Fizz (filed and published for opposition in 2000); Juicy Fresh (filed and published for opposition in 2000); Juice Punch (filed in 2000, published for opposition in 2001); Juice Stick (filed in 2000, published for opposition in 2001); and Colour Juice (filed in 2000, published for opposition in 2001). This report demonstrates the existence of a significant interest in the marks Juicy and Juice for cosmetics long before the events at issue here.
Lancôme applied for PTO registration for JUICY ROUGE on December 19, 2002. It reflected a French registration date of June 21, 2002. The mark was published for opposition on November 25, 2003. Again, Couture did not oppose the registration. JUICY ROUGE was registered as a trademark for lipstick on April 19, 2005.
Lancôme introduced JUICY ROUGE into the United States market in May 2003 through a promotion it called "Juicy [Gossip]." Lancôme runs approximately 54 promotions each year at its retailers in the United States. They include Gift-with-Purchase, Purchase-with-Purchase, and other in-store events. The cosmetics that are given away in the Gift-with-Purchase and Purchase-with-Purchase promotions are always Lancôme products. Lancôme makes approximately 40% of its sales of its luxury cosmetics during the Gift with Purchase and Purchase with Purchase promotional events.
During Juicy Gossip a makeup artist taught consumers how to apply JUICY TUBES and JUICY ROUGE. The promotional materials for the "Juicy [Gossip]" event that were developed by Lancôme and sent by retailers to consumers through a cooperative advertising program ("co-op advertising") featured many Lancôme products, such as Star Bronzer, and Résolution. The theme of the materials was the opportunity to learn the makeup secrets of the Hollywood stars. For example, and placed in brackets to make it seem as if it were being whispered, it read, "[Try the stars' gorgeous lash trick. A magical date look.]" For JUICY ROUGE, the brochure stated, "[Which pop princess and sexy city divas think Juicy Tubes in Fling, Miracle and Summer are perfect for their pout? And to juice up those looks, try new Juicy Rouge for super-lasting shine]"*fn7
The Lancôme website described the event in this way. "Come to the Lancôme counter for the latest juicy gossip. How do those Hollywood Divas get their looks? Book your appointment today with your Lancôme makeup Artist and try the latest Juicy Look." The gift-of-fun, which came with any $25 purchase, was Lancôme products*fn8 in a striped "new Lancôme signature tote." None of the gift items was a Lancôme cosmetics item from its Juicy line. The website described the gift in these terms: "[From the fundamental to the fun-onemal, it's a case for taking off anytime: the new Lancôme signature tote with matching change purse, filled with beauty must haves. Make it yours.]"
Beginning in May 2003, and continuing into 2004, Lancôme advertized JUICY ROUGE in national newspapers and leading women's magazines. An internal Lancôme analysis of sales through October 2003, indicated that JUICY ROUGE was most popular with the thirty-five to forty-five year old age group. Customers were reported to like it because "they can get a gloss-like shine."
G. Juicy Vernis, Juicy Crayon and Juicy Tubes Pop
In 2003, Lancôme developed three new products as line extensions of JUICY TUBES. Juicy Tubes Pop is a lip gloss with a tingling sensation; it was a permanent addition to the collection. Juicy Crayon, a shiny lip gloss pencil, and Juicy Vernis, a shiny nail polish, were "one-shot" offerings and did not become permanent additions to Lancôme's cosmetics line. Lancôme advertised Juicy Tubes Pop, but not the other two products.
Lancôme ordered full United States trademark searches for these three marks in early October 2003. The searches again identified the marks Juicy Couture and Juicy Jeans. The search also identified a new mark for Couture: Juicy Girl. According to the report, Travis Jeans filed on February 28, 2002 to register Juicy Couture and Juicy Jeans in eleven classes of goods, including cosmetics and perfume; they were published for opposition on August 12 and September 2, 2003, respectively. It reflected a March 17, 2003 filing for the mark Juicy Girl in connection with two classes of goods, including cosmetics and perfume. As with the other reports, the words Juice or Juicy appeared in several registered marks for cosmetics, and in many more applications for registration.
Lancôme applied for trademarks for Juicy Crayon and Juicy Vernis on November 17, 2003, and for Juicy Tubes Pop on June 16, 2004. Lancôme had applied in France for registration of Juicy Tubes Pop on January 29, 2004.
H. The Juicy Pop Promotion
Lancôme introduced Juicy Tubes Pop into the United States market beginning in May 2004 through a promotional campaign called Juicy Pop. A press release sent to beauty editors began, "a new juicy bunch bursts onto the 'pop' scene. Lancôme introduces the juiciest news yet.... new Juicy Tubes Pop...."
During the in-store Juicy Pop event makeup artists determined the consumer's "color scope" for Juicy Tubes Pop, Juicy Vernis and Juicy Crayon. A store participated for one to two weeks during a period that ran from May 21 to July 22. During that time, customers were offered a "Gift of Fun," which included a striped beach bag, flip-flops, and Lancôme products. Lancôme also sold a fragrance called Lôlli Pop in conjunction with this promotion.
At least some stores ran radio ads in connection with the Juicy Pop event. A typical radio advertisement began, "For Lancôme, this is Juicy Pop Spring 2004 gift-to-fund radio." It continued, "are your lips ready for a tingly burst of icy shine? Introducing Juicy Tubes Pop from Lancôme, a new collection of ultra shiny cooling lip gloss that will keep you looking hot and feeling cool all summer." During the ad, besides repeating the event name Juicy Pop several times, the word juicy was used as an adjective, as in, "Try a new look for summer with a juicy make-over", and come in and receive "our gift of the juicy summer tote filled with everything from makeup to bronzer, even a matching pair of flip flops."
Lancôme developed in-store signs and displays prominently featuring the words Juicy Pop in pink and orange to accompany the event.*fn9 Lancôme also developed a circular plastic display disc for the counter-top on which to set the Juicy Tubes Pop, Juicy Vernis and Juicy Crayon products. It was called the play-station, and remained on the counter for a few months after a store's two-week Juicy Pop promotional event. (The play-station is described in more detail later in the Opinion.) During the period immediately following the Juicy Pop event, Lancôme also introduced its newest Juicy product, Juicy Wear. At least at some stores, the Juicy Wear products were displayed near the play-station so that consumers could easily look at the entire family of Juicy cosmetics. Lancôme considered the Juicy Pop promotion, and the play-station, a success.
Lancôme's United States marketing team developed the concept for what became Juicy Wear in early 2003, when it conceived of a 2-step lipstick that includes a lipstick base and a clear, shiny gloss overlay in a tube. Lancôme debated the best name for the product. The company wanted to express long lasting wear and a shiny effect, but at least one key executive was concerned that the name Juicy was becoming banal. She noted that Lancôme's affiliate L'Oreal was launching a product called Color Juice. The company identified factors in favor of the name Juicy Wear, such as its ability to capitalize upon the "strong appeal of the juicy franchise," including the opportunity to "keep the edge of the juicy franchise on shine" while adding the concept of "long wear." The identified risks in this name choice were the risk "of confusion within the most successful franchise." There was a fear that the sales of Juicy Wear would cannibalize the sales of JUICY ROUGE and would conflict with the strategy of selling Juicy products at a lower price range.*fn10 One United States executive observed that in this country Juicy "represents" shine and not sheer. She wanted to choose a name that would convey "[a] full burst of rich wear proof Juicy Color sealed with Juicy shine that lets you kiss, smile and seduce indefinitely."
Besides the name Juicy Wear, Lancôme considered Rouge Fusion, Vinyl Fixx, Vinyl Wear, Tatoo'n Shine, and Glossy Tatoo. In addition to the reference to L'Oreal during this discussion, there was a reference to Estée Lauder. In none of this internal debate is there any reference to Juicy Couture or its products. Simply put, Lancôme did not consider its competition to include any clothing manufacturer, and its product development and marketing teams focused exclusively on the trends within the cosmetics market and the competition it faced within that market.
Ultimately, Lancôme developed, and tested in October 2003, two 2-step products, one of which was called Juicy Wear, and the other of which was called Rouge Fusion. The Juicy Wear product outperformed its rival in staying power and name. An internal memo reports, "Juicy Wear as a name communicates a very unique and strong concept, with a formula that delivers on long wear and high shine. It significantly outperformed Rouge Fusion, both on concept (uniqueness, overall liking, key attributes) and use (on wear and shine)."
The United States Lancôme team recommended the adoption of Juicy Wear as part of the "Juicy franchise". It considered it "the perfect opportunity to recruit women (core target 25-35 yo) who expect long wear and shine. It would fit within our geography, briniging [sic] an additional benefit to an additional core target v. Juicy Tubes and Juicy Rouge, while capitalizing on the strong awareness of Juicy, preventing competitors from copying us and keeping the edge."
Lancôme applied to the PTO for a trademark for Juicy Wear on January 21, 2004. Lancôme did not conduct a trademark search before doing so.
The product was launched in July 2004, but was not fully distributed until some weeks later. An April 2004 press release sent to beauty editors to inform them of this new product reads: "Lancôme unveils the first long-lasting lip colour that's sealed in super-juicy shine. Introducing new Juicy Wear, ultra-lasting full colour and shine lip duo." In its text, the press release uses such phrases as "Juicy dreams do come true," and "Juicy proof...say good-bye to dry!" Referring to its other Juicy products, the release trumpets that "Lancôme, who first started the 'Juicy' phenomenon with Juicy Tubes and Juicy Rouge, adds a high-tech duo to its 'Juicy Dream Team.'"
The largest visual used at the Lancôme counter for Juicy Wear was a close-up of a woman's open mouth and a dark red apple. The lips have a luscious, high sheen appearance from the lipstick, and the implied message is that the lipstick, which has a color as dark and rich as the apple's, will even survive the act of eating an apple.
Lancôme's sales data through August 2005 indicated that Juicy Wear was most popular in the age group thirty-five to forty-four, while JUICY TUBES and Juicy Tubes Pop were most popular among those twenty-five to thirty-four. This analysis must have been disappointing to Lancôme since one of the principal aims of the development of the Juicy product line was to attract younger women between the ages twenty-five and thirty-five, and even those as young as fifteen, to Lancôme products.
The term "wear" is commonly used in connection with lip products. Estée Lauder has a Double-Wear duo lip product; Clinique Laboratories, Inc. has Glosswear For Lips; Avon has Glazewear Liquid Lip Color and Perfect Wear All-Day Comfort Lipstick; Covergirl has Smoothwear Liptints; and L'Oreal has Wear Infinite.
J. Lancôme's Other Trademark Applications for Juicy Products
In addition to the marks just discussed, between May and September 2003, Lancôme applied to register the marks Juicy & Fresh, Juicy Touch, Juicy, Juicy Stay, Juicy Last, and Juicy Style. In December 2003, it filed to register Juicy Kisses. Between April and August 2004, it filed to register Juicyful, Juicy Juice, Juicy Crush, Juicy Dessert, Juicy Drops, and Juicy Macaron. All of these applications were for cosmetics, except Juicy Crush, which was for a hair product.
Lancôme strictly controls its marketing and advertising of its products. This central control of its image extends even to the countertop displays at Lancôme counters. In recent years it has even provided its retail locations with a calendar to show which products and lines should be featured each month.
While Lancôme refers internally to its Juicy franchise, it rarely uses that term, or synonyms such as the Juicy collection or family, in advertising. Its advertising typically refers to each product by its own name.
As with JUICY TUBES, JUICY ROUGE, and Juicy Tubes Pop, Lancôme supported Juicy Wear with print advertising, principally in women's magazines, and promotions. All of the advertising prominently featured the Lancôme name and its rose. Between 2002 and 2004, Lancôme spent almost 30% of its advertising budget in the United States on its Juicy products.
Lancôme's sales of Juicy products peaked in 2003 and 2004.
JUICY TUBES and JUICY ROUGE achieved their largest sales in 2003; Juicy Wear had its largest sales in 2004, the year it was launched. The sales for all three products fell off considerably in 2005. Lancôme experienced losses on Juicy Wear in both 2004 and 2005 at the marketing contribution and operating profit levels. The sales of Juicy Wear have made a significantly lower contribution to profitability than the sales of Lancôme's other Juicy products.
M. Lancôme's Knowledge of Juicy Couture
Rosen, who invented the name "Juicy Tubes" for Lancôme in France in 1999, did not know of Juicy Couture until 2002. Roujol learned of Juicy Couture in January 2004 during a trip to Miami, when she noticed someone wearing a Juicy Couture jogging suit. Lancôme executive Marie Cesbron, who was involved with the selection of the Juicy Wear ...