The opinion of the court was delivered by: Chin, D.J.
In these six related cases, defendants operate Canadian online pharmacies through which they offer U.S. consumers generic versions of plaintiffs' popular cholesterol medication, Zocor. Plaintiffs filed complaints against defendants for patent infringement, trademark infringement, and unfair competition under federal and state law. Defendants move for partial summary judgment pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. P. 56(c) on the issue of patent remedies. They contend that plaintiffs may only recover damages accrued from April 2005, when the suits were filed, to December 2005, when the patent expired, and may not obtain injunctive relief now that the patent has expired. Plaintiffs move for a continuance pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. P. 56(f) to allow them further discovery to determine which patent claims they plan to assert.
For the reasons set forth below, defendants' motion is granted in part and denied in part, and plaintiffs' motion is denied.
The parties and the facts relating to the trademark and unfair competition claims are described in the Court's ruling of March 30, 2006, on defendants' numerous motions to dismiss. See Merck & Co. v. MediPlan Health Consulting, Inc., 425 F. Supp. 2d 402 (S.D.N.Y. 2006). Accordingly, I now set forth only those undisputed facts relevant to the current motions.*fn1
Merck & Co. ("Merck") is a pharmaceutical company that develops, manufactures, and markets prescription drugs. On April 24, 1984, U.S. Patent No. 4,444,784 (the "'784 patent") for "Antihypercholesterolemic Compounds" was issued to Merck and thereafter assigned to MSD Technology L.P. ("MSD"). (Compl. ¶¶ 3, 11 & Ex. A).*fn2 The commercial embodiment of the '784 patent is Zocor, a popular medication that reduces cholesterol and fatty substances in the blood. (Compl. ¶¶ 13, 15). Zocor pills are not marked with any indication that they are protected by a patent. Simvastatin is the active ingredient in Zocor. (Compl. ¶ 13). Since November 1986, Merck has been the exclusive entity legally authorized by patent laws and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the "FDA") to sell simvastatin in the United States. (Compl. ¶¶ 14-15).
The '784 patent contains eighteen claims: twelve for compounds and compositions that inhibit the biosynthesis of cholesterol and six for methods of treating high cholesterol through administration of the covered compounds and compositions. (Compl. Ex. A. ('784 patent, at col. 26-27)). In compliance with federal law, plaintiffs listed the '784 patent in the FDA Orange Book, a publication of approved medications and their patent protection. The '784 patent expired on December 23, 2005.
Defendants are operators of Canadian online pharmacies that offer U.S. consumers generic simvastatin, among other products, through their websites.*fn3 The FDA has not approved defendants' sale of simvastatin in the United States.
Plaintiffs filed the first action, No. 05 Civ. 3650, on April 8, 2005, and the remaining actions on April 11, 2005. The first count of each complaint alleges infringement of the '784 patent. The remaining counts relate to plaintiffs' trademark and unfair competition claims. Defendants moved to dismiss those claims, and on March 30, 2006, this Court granted the motions in part and denied them in part.
Defendants filed the instant joint motion for partial summary judgment on November 2, 2005. Plaintiffs filed their opposition and motion for continuance on November 23, 2005.
Defendants move to preclude damages or injunctive relief based on (1) plaintiffs' failure to provide patent protection notice under the patent marking statute, 35 U.S.C. § 287(a), prior to filing suit in April 2005, and (2) the expiration of the '784 patent on December 23, 2005. Plaintiffs oppose, contending that additional discovery is ...