The opinion of the court was delivered by: Alvin K. Hellerstein, U.S.D.J.
AMENDED OPINION AND ORDER GRANTING MOTIONS FOR PARTIAL SUMMARY JUDGMENT
In the early morning of December 7, 2005, just shortly after midnight, two ships collided. The M/V Ziemia Lodzka (the "Ziemia"), a Liberian-flag freighter was sailing Southerly and Easterly from Morocco towards its destination in Poland. The M/V Vertigo (the "Vertigo"), a Jamaican-flag freighter, was en route from St. Petersburg, Russia to United States ports. They collided in the Great Belt of Denmark.*fn1 Both ships sustained damage and the Vertigo would ultimately sink, not to be recovered until late December 2005. Its cargo, hot-rolled steel that had been loaded in Russia and Poland was damaged and the beneficial owners of that cargo, Magellan International Trading Corporation ("Magellan"), MAN Ferrostaal, Inc. ("Ferrostaal") and Ranger Steel Supply Corporation ("Ranger Steel") have filed suit against both the Vertigo and the Ziemia, and their respective owners and managers, to recover their damages.
The vessel interests, the Vertigo and the Ziemia and their owners and managers, now move for partial summary judgment for a determination that the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law with respect to Collisions between Vessels (the "1910 Convention" or "Convention"), Sept. 23, 1910, 212 Consol. T.S. 178, should apply in its entirety to the pending dispute. The determination is a critical one as application of the Convention, which provides for proportionate and several liability, may have a direct impact on the scope and manner of recovery allowed by the cargo claimants. I hold that the interests of Denmark in the outcome of this litigation predominate and thus grant the motions by the Vertigo and the Ziemia for partial summary judgment determining that the 1910 Convention applies in its entirety to the pending dispute.
I. FACTUAL AND PROCEDURAL BACKGROUND
On November 25, 2005 the Vertigo, a Jamaican-flag bulk vessel, commenced its voyage from St. Petersburg, Russia, bound for Texas and Louisiana and carrying on board a cargo of steel products loaded in Poland and Russia. The Vertigo, registered under the laws of Jamaica, was managed by Primal Shipmanagement, Inc., a corporation organized and existing under the laws of Greece, with its principal place of business in Greece. The Vertigo was owned by Vertigo Maritime, Inc., a corporation organized and existing under the laws of Liberia, but with its principal place of business in Switzerland. Cargo-Levan Schiffahrtsges Bremen (Combac) a/k/a Cargo-Levant Schiffahrtsgesellschaft Mbh (collectively "Cargo-Levant") chartered the cargo aboard the Vertigo. Cargo-Levant is a corporation organized and existing under the laws of Germany with its place of business in Germany. Of the various persons and companies having interests in the Vertigo, namely those of Jamaica, Greece, Liberia, Switzerland, and Germany, all but Liberia have enacted the 1910 Convention.
On board the Vertigo at the time of the collision was a cargo of steel products, owned by Magellan International Trading Corporation ("Magellan"), MAN Ferrostaal, Inc. ("Ferrostaal") and Ranger Steel Supply Corporation ("Ranger Steel"). Magellan, is a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the State of Illinois. Ferrostaal is a Delaware corporation with its principal place of business in Texas.*fn2
Ranger Steel is a Texas business entity with its principal place of business in Texas. Both Russia and Poland have enacted the 1910 Convention. The United States has not.
At about the time the Vertigo began its journey from Russia to the United States, the Ziemia, a Liberian-flag bulk vessel, commenced its voyage from Morocco to Poland. At the time of the collision, the Ziemia was owned by Ziemia One Limited, a corporation organized under the laws of Liberia. Polska Zugluga Morska (the English of which is Polish Steamship Company), an entity organized under the laws of Poland with its principal place of business in Poland, was the manager of the Ziemia. The Ziemia was chartered by Polsteam Shipping Company, organized under the laws of Greece with its principal place of business in Cyprus. Poland, Greece, and Cyprus have enacted the 1910 Convention; Liberia and Morocco have not.
In the early morning hours of December 7, 2005, as the vessels continued on their respective voyages, they passed through the narrow straits of the Great Belt of Denmark, within the islands of Langeland, Fyn, Lolland and Sjaelland, all islands belonging to Denmark. It was within that narrow and tortuous body of water, with a channel of passage in some places less than seven-tenths of a mile, that the fateful collision occurred. The area where the collision occurred is subject to the undisputed control of Danish authorities. Indeed, Denmark operates a vessel tracking system ("VTS") and tracks and reports on all accidents occurring within the Belt. (See Defs.' Ex. E.) There is no evidence that any other nation claims territorial control over the area where the collision occurred.
Both vessels sustained damage as a result of the collision, and the Vertigo ultimately sank. Although the Vertigo was re-floated and towed to Fredericia, Denmark, its cargo of hot rolled steel was damaged. Subsequent to the collision, cargo claimants, Magellan, Ferrostaal and Ranger Steel, have all filed claims in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York as against both the Vertigo and the Ziemia. (See Magellan Compl., 05 Civ. 10326; Ferrostaal and Ranger Steel Compl., 05 Civ. 10631.) Vertigo Maritime and Primal Shipmanagement, as the owner and manager of the Vertigo, have in turn filed a separate action (06 Civ. 1727) seeking exoneration from liability or limitation of liability pursuant to the U.S. Limitation of Liability Act, 46 U.S.C. app. §§ 181-196 (2006). A separate action has been instituted in Greece against Primal Shipmanagement by the owners and managers of the Ziemia. By their answers to the complaints filed by cargo claimants in 05 Civ. 10326 and 05 Civ. 10631, the Ziemia Defendants also assert the Limitation of Liability Act as an affirmative defense.
The Ziemia Defendants, joined by Vertigo Maritime and Primal Shipmanagement as Plaintiffs in 06 Civ. 1727, move for partial summary judgment for a determination that the 1910 Convention applies in its entirety to the cargo damage actions now pending before me. MAN Ferrostaal and Ranger Steel (collectively the "Cargo Plaintiffs") oppose the pending motion for summary judgment and assert that application of the 1910 Convention is improper and would work a manifest injustice insofar as it conflicts with U.S. law concerning recovery by cargo claimants in maritime actions.
A determination of whether Danish law and the 1910 Convention, or United States law, should apply requires a careful balancing of the interests implicated by the instant litigation including an analysis of United States law and public policy. The essential question is which body of law "has the most significant contacts with the matter in dispute," Babcock v. Jackson, 191 N.E.2d 279, 282 (N.Y. 1963), and it is to this question that I now turn.
Summary judgment is warranted if the "pleadings, depositions, answers to interrogatories, and admissions on file, together with the affidavits . . . show that there is no genuine issue as to any material fact and that the moving party is entitled to judgment as a matter of law." Fed. R. Civ. P. 56(c). A "genuine issue" of "material fact" exists "if the evidence is such that a reasonable jury could return a verdict for the nonmoving party." Anderson v. Liberty Lobby, Inc., 477 U.S. 242, 248 (1986). Although all facts and inferences therefrom are to be construed in favor of the party opposing the motion, see Harlen Assocs. v. Village of Mineola, 273 F.3d 494, 498 (2d Cir. 2001), the non-moving party must raise more than just "metaphysical doubt as to the material facts," Matsushita Elec. Indus. Co. v. Zenith Radio Corp., 475 U.S. 574, 586 (1986). "[M]ere speculation and conjecture is ...