The opinion of the court was delivered by: William H. Pauley III, District Judge
Plaintiff Raymond Tirone ("Tirone") brings this putative class action against the New York Stock Exchange, Inc. ("NYSE" or "Exchange") and the Welfare Benefit Plan of the New York Stock Exchange (the "Plan") (collectively, the "Defendants") pursuant to §§ 502 and 510 of the Employee Retirement and Income Security Act of 1974, as amended ("ERISA"), 29 U.S.C. §§ 1132, 1140. Plaintiffs, all disabled former NYSE employees whose health care and life insurance benefits were terminated by Defendants, seek recovery of unpaid benefits and reinstatement as eligible beneficiaries under the Plan. Presently before this Court are Defendants' motion to dismiss Plaintiffs' § 510 claim and Plaintiffs' motion for summary judgment on that claim. For the reasons set forth below, Defendants' motion is granted and Plaintiffs' motion is denied.
The NYSE sponsors the Plan which provides, inter alia, disability, retirement, health and life insurance benefits for managerial and professional employees. (Amended Consolidated Complaint, dated Jan. 4, 2006 ("Compl.") ¶ 3.) The NYSE also provides a Summary Plan Description ("SPD") that purports to summarize the Plan's terms. (Declaration of Alice M. MacDermeid, dated Feb. 14, 2006 ("MacDermeid Decl.") Ex. E.)
Tirone worked at the NYSE from 1969 until 1990, serving as a Senior Trading Investigator and Market Surveillant during the final six years of that period. (Compl. ¶¶ 14, 21, 31.) In early 1990, Tirone commenced a medical leave of absence after he began experiencing seizures. (Compl. ¶ 31.) When the NYSE determined that Tirone could not return to work, it classified him as "totally disabled." (Compl. ¶ 34.) The Plan provides: "After 24 months of disability, totally disabled means that you are unable to earn more than 60 percent of your indexed predisability earnings from any employer in your local economy at any gainful occupation for which you are reasonably qualified . . ." (Compl. ¶ 35.) In mid-1990 Tirone was approved for long-term disability benefits payable by Unum Insurance Company ("Unum"), NYSE's long term disability insurance carrier, on the basis of a total disability. (Compl. ¶¶ 38, 40.) From 1990 to the present, Tirone has received from Unum long-term disability benefits and a benefit equal to 60% of his last-earned salary. (Compl. ¶ 40.) Until March 31, 2005, Tirone also participated in the Select Plus HMO provided by United Health Care (the "Health Plan") and the Group Life Insurance Plan provided by MetLife (the "Life Insurance Plan"). (MacDermeid Decl. Exs. A-D.)
The SPD contains the following provision regarding amendments to the Plan: The Exchange intends to continue the plans, but the Board of Directors of the Exchange reserves the right, in its sole and absolute discretion, to amend, modify or terminate any and all provisions of the plans (including any related documents or policies), in whole or in part, at any time and for any reason . . . including . . . changing the eligibility rules [and] eliminating particular types of benefits . (MacDermeid Decl. Ex. E1 at D00006.) Effective January 1, 2005, Defendants adopted a purported leave of absence policy (the "Leave of Absence Policy" or the "Policy") pursuant to which the employment status of an individual on medical leave is discontinued if the individual cannot resume work within two years of commencing the leave. (Compl. ¶ 57.) The parties dispute whether the Leave of Absence Policy represents an amendment to the Plan or an employment policy that is unrelated to the Plan. In any event, Tirone was notified of the Leave of Absence Policy on November 9, 2004. (Compl. ¶ 47). The Policy had the effect of discontinuing Tirone's benefits under the Health Plan and Life Insurance Plan as of March 31, 2005 if he did not return to the NYSE by that date.*fn1 (Compl. ¶¶ 50-51.) Because Tirone was unable to return, the NYSE ended his health and life insurance coverage.*fn2 (Compl. ¶ 10.)
On October 13, 2005, Tirone commenced an ERISA class action against the NYSE on behalf of himself and at least 14 other former NYSE employees whose health and life insurance benefits were discontinued by the Leave of Absence Policy. Tirone v. New York Stock Exchange, Inc., No. 05 Civ. 8703 (WHP). On December 23, 2005, Tirone commenced a similar action against the NYSE Employee Benefits Plans Committee and John Martino, the administrator of the Plan. Tirone v. Martino, No. 05 Civ. 10742 (WHP). By Order dated January 9, 2006, this Court consolidated the actions pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. P. 42(a). On January 10, 2006, Tirone filed the Amended Consolidated Complaint seeking the following damages pursuant to ERISA §§ 502 and 510: (1) compensation for the coverage Plaintiffs have been denied as a result of the Leave of Absence Policy; (2) reinstatement as active NYSE employees on medical leave or, alternatively, payment of future health and life insurance coverage; and (3) costs and attorneys fees. (Compl. ¶¶ 82-83, 89-90.)
I. Motion to Dismiss and Summary Judgment Standards
With regard to Defendants' motion to dismiss pursuant to Rule 12(b)(6), this Court must accept the material facts alleged in the complaint as true and construe all reasonable inferences in Plaintiffs' favor. Grandon v. Merrill Lynch & Co., 147 F.3d 184, 188 (2d Cir. 1998). A court should not dismiss a complaint for failure to state a claim unless "it appears beyond doubt that the plaintiff can prove no set of facts in support of [its] claim which would entitle [it] to relief." Conley v. Gibson, 355 U.S. 41, 45-46 (1957); accord Gant v. Wallingford Bd. of Educ., 69 F.3d 669, 673 (2d Cir. 1995). Dismissal is proper when the plaintiff fails to plead the basic elements of a cause of action. See Wright v. Giuliani, No. 99 Civ. 10091 (WHP), 2000 WL 777940, at *4 (S.D.N.Y. 2000). The issue on a motion to dismiss "is not whether a plaintiff will ultimately prevail, but whether the claimant is entitled to offer evidence to support claims." Villager Pond, Inc. v. Town of Darien, 56 F.3d 375, 378 (2d Cir. 1995) (citation omitted).
On a motion to dismiss, a court's "consideration is limited to facts stated on the face of the complaint, in documents appended to the complaint or incorporated in the complaint by reference, and to such matters of which judicial notice may be taken." Allen v. WestPointPepperell, Inc., 945 F.2d 40, 44 (2d Cir. 1991); see also Chambers v. Time Warner, Inc., 282 F.3d 147, 153 (2d Cir. 2002). Such documents are deemed part of the complaint. Cortec Indus. v. Sum Holding L.P., 949 F.2d 42, 47 (2d Cir. 1991). A court may also consider "documents either in plaintiff['s] possession or of which plaintiff had knowledge and relied on in bringing suit." Brass v. Am. Film Techs., Inc., 987 F.2d 142, 150 (2d Cir. 1993). Here, it is undisputed that the Court may rely on benefits plan documents referenced in the Amended Consolidated Complaint without converting Defendants' motion to dismiss into a motion for summary judgment. See Cortec Indus., Inc. v. Sun Holding L.P., 949 F.2d 42, 47-48 (2d Cir. 1991).
Plaintiffs' motion for summary judgment should be granted "if the pleadings, depositions, answers to interrogatories, and admissions on file, together with the affidavits, if any, show there is no genuine issue as to any material fact and that the moving party is entitled to a judgment as a matter of law." Fed. R. Civ. P. 56(c); see also Anderson v. Liberty Lobby, Inc., 477 U.S. 242, 247 (1986); Celotex Corp. v. Catrett, 477 U.S. 317, 322-23 (1986). The burden of demonstrating the absence of any genuine dispute as to a material fact rests with the moving party. Adickes v. S.H. Kress & Co., 398 U.S. 144, 157 (1970); Grady v. Affiliated Cent., Inc., 130 F.3d 553, 559 (2d Cir. 1997). In determining whether there is a genuine issue as to any material fact, "the evidence of the non-movant is to be believed, and all justifiable inferences are to be drawn in his favor." Liberty Lobby, 477 U.S. at 255.
Section 510 of ERISA, as codified at 29 U.S.C. § ...