The opinion of the court was delivered by: Lawrence M. McKENNA, D.J.
THIS MEMORANDUM AND ORDER APPLIES TO 03 Civ. 5755, 03 Civ. 5756, 03 Civ. 5757, 03 Civ. 5758, 03 Civ. 5759, 03 Civ. 5760, 03 Civ. 5761, 03 Civ. 5762, 03 Civ. 5763, 03 Civ. 5764, 03 Civ. 5765, 03 Civ. 5766, 03 Civ. 5768, 03 Civ. 5769, 03 Civ. 5770, 03 Civ. 5771, 03 Civ. 5774, 03 Civ. 5775, 03 Civ. 5776, 03 Civ. 5778, 03 Civ. 5780, 03 Civ. 5781, 03 Civ. 5783, 03 Civ. 5784, 03 Civ. 5785, 03 Civ. 5786, 03 Civ. 5787, 03 Civ. 5790, 03 Civ. 5791, 03 Civ. 5792.
On November 10, 2006, the Court approved class settlements, in this consolidated class action brought on behalf of persons and entities who purchased or otherwise acquired securities of Adelphia Communications Corporation ("Adelphia") in the period August 16, 1999 through June 10, 2002, between plaintiffs and (i) defendant Deloitte & Touche LLP ("Deloitte") and (ii) a number of defendant banks (identified in, e.g., Plaintiffs' Memorandum in Support of Proposed Settlements, at 1-2, n.2) ("the Banks"), for, respectively, (i) $210 million and (ii) $244,953,437. Counsel for lead plaintiffs now move for an award of legal fees and expenses (with respect to both settlements) in the amount of 21.4% of the total of the settlements plus expenses of $1,455,130.81.*fn1 The fee is to be taken from the settlements proportionately.
Objections to the fees sought, as excessive, have been filed by (i) Leonard and Claire Tow and related entities; (ii) the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Public School Employees' Retirement System; and (iii) the New York State Teachers' Retirement System ("NYSTRS").
The fee application will be "assessed based on scrutiny of the unique circumstances of [this] case, and 'a jealous regard to the rights of those who are interested in the fund.'" Goldberger v. Integrated Resources, Inc., 209 F.3d 43, 53 (2d Cir. 2000) (quoting City of Detroit v. Grinnell Corp., 495 F.2d 448, 469 (2d Cir. 1974)).
The Court will consider a fee based upon a percentage of the common fund achieved, subject to consideration of the lodestar as a "cross check." See id. at 50.*fn2 The fee application is considered in light of the Goldberger factors: (1) the time and labor expended by counsel; (2) the magnitude and complexities of the litigation; (3) the risk of the litigation; (4) the quality of representation; (5) the requested fee in relation to the settlement; and (6) public policy considerations. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. v. Visa U.S.A., Inc., 396 F.3d 96, 121-22 (2d Cir. 2005) (citing Goldberger, 209 F.3d at 50).
The Court has had the benefit of considering the helpful declarations of law professors John C. Coffee, Jr. (of Columbia University Law School, submitted by plaintiffs) and Michael A. Perino (of St. John's University School of Law, submitted by NYSTRS), which give a very thorough overview of what federal courts have been doing in recent years on fee applications in class actions. Ultimately, of course, each case must be evaluated individually. An average of percentages in (more or less) similar cases should not be used as a "benchmark." See Goldberger, 209 F.3d at 51-52.
The first Goldberger factor ascertains the time and labor expended by counsel. Plaintiffs' counsel -- i.e., lead counsel and others working under their direction -- have (to the date of the application) expended 83,038.33 hours on this litigation. (Joint Declaration of Arthur N. Abbey and Jeffrey H. Squire ("Joint Declaration"), ¶ 263.)*fn3 Those hours, at the hourly rates of the various participants, represent $33,686,468 in billable time. Id.
As is set forth in detail in the Joint Declaration, lead counsel were required to perform services in the interest of the class in connection with other related proceedings: the bankruptcy of Adelphia and its subsidiaries, the civil action brought by the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"), and the United States Attorney's prosecution of a number of Adelphia's principal shareholders and officers. (Joint Decl. ¶¶ 82-138.)
In addition, of course, lead counsel participated in the present case, drafting the consolidated class action complaint and participating substantially in responding to defendants' motions, and, most significantly, studying the discovery available (notwithstanding the discovery stay provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act) and consulting with accounting and damages experts, and, so prepared, engaging in the lengthy and difficult negotiations with Deloitte and the Banks, under mediator Daniel Weinstein, that resulted in the settlements.*fn4
The second Goldberger factor focuses on the magnitude and complexities of the litigation.
The magnitude and complexity of the litigation is plain: these are over 60 cases in the MDL docket, many, but by no means all, subsumed in the consolidated class action complaint; counsel estimate approximately $5.5 billion in market losses;*fn5 furthermore, the bankrupt issuer, Adelphia, and the allegedly principal wrongdoers, members of the Rigas family whose assets have been forfeited to the government, are not promising sources of any major recovery, so that plaintiffs have had to direct their principal efforts at the present defendants, who have arguable defenses, e.g., under Central Bank of Denver, N.A. v. First Interstate Bank of Denver, N.A., 511 U.S. 164 (1994), and its progeny, and that their proportionate Rule 10b-5 fault is relatively small.
The facts relating to the third Goldberger factor -- the risk of the litigation -- are suggested in the discussion above of the second factor. Success, at least of the magnitude of the settlements at issue, was very far from assured. Some of the bank defendants might have escaped or reduced their exposure through releases in the Adelphia bankruptcy proceedings. Central Bank represented a serious barrier to overcome; the settling defendants' proportionate liability on the Rule 10b-5 claims might have been significantly reduced; there remained at the time of settlement serious limitations issues (see Adelphia Comm. Corp. Sec. & Deriv. Lit., No 03 MDL 1529, 2005 WL 1278544 (S.D.N.Y. May 31, 2005)); and causation had to be established. The case had to be litigated, moreover, against large and extremely capable law firms deeply experienced in securities litigation.
The fourth Goldberger factor looks at the quality of the representation. Here, lead counsel are two law firms well known and experienced in class action litigation. The quality of their work is, of course, best shown in the results they have achieved here: an all cash settlement of just under $455 million. The Court believes that Judge Cote's description of the achievement of counsel in the WorldCom litigation applies here as well: "If the Lead Plaintiff[s] had been represented by less tenacious and competent counsel, it is by no means clear that [they] would have achieved the success [they] did here on behalf of the Class." In re WorldCom, Inc. Sec. Litig., 388 F. Supp. 2d 319, 359 (S.D.N.Y. 2005). The fact that the settlements were ...