The opinion of the court was delivered by: James C. Francis IV United States Magistrate Judge
These cases concern the arrests of persons protesting in connection with the Republican National Convention (the "RNC") in 2004. The Schiller and Abdell cases arise from arrests near the World Trade Center site on August 31, 2004 during a march organized by the War Resisters League (the "WRL"). The defendants (hereinafter "the City") have moved pursuant to Rule 45(2)(c)(2)(B) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure to require the WRL and Frida Berrigan, both non-parties to the litigation, to produce documents responsive to a subpoena issued on September 28, 2005. The City has also moved pursuant to Rule 37(a)(2)(A) to compel the Abdell plaintiffs to produce related documents. Finally, the City has moved to compel Ed Hedemann, who is a plaintiff in Abdell, to provide the City with releases so that the City may obtain documents related to his arrests on occasions unrelated to the RNC. For the reasons described below, the City's motions to compel production are denied in part and granted in part, and the City's motion to compel Mr. Hedemann to execute the requested releases is granted.
A. August 31, 2004 Protest
The WRL is a pacifist anti-war organization. On August 31, 2004, the second day of the RNC, the WRL organized a vigil, march, and "die-in" to protest the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and the "war on terror." The vigil was to take place at the World Trade Center site. From there, participants planned to march two abreast on the sidewalk to Union Square. From Union Square, participants were to proceed to Madison Square Garden, where some would knowingly risk arrest by participating in the die-in. ("Basic Scenario for Civil Disobedience at the RNC," attached as Exh. F to Letter of Fred M. Weiler dated Oct. 6, 2006 ("Weiler 10/6/06 Letter")). According to a press release issued by the WRL on August 30, 2004, the protest was part of a "full day of nonviolent direct actions in coordination with the A31 Action Coalition." The WRL noted that no permits had been sought or granted for any of these events. (Press Release, attached as Exh. F to Weiler 10/6/06 Letter).
The plaintiffs allege that on August 31, 2004, as protesters gathered near the World Trade Center site, the police informed the organizers that the group could march "as long as they remained on the sidewalk, obeyed traffic laws, and walked two-by-two." (Schiller First Amended Complaint ("Schiller Complaint"), ¶ 3). The police then stopped the march soon after it began and, "without giving people a meaningful opportunity to disperse," arrested more than two hundred people who were standing on the sidewalk. (Schiller Complaint, ¶ 3; see also Abdell Amended Complaint, ¶¶ 20-23). The plaintiffs in Schiller and Abdell were among those arrested on this occasion.*fn1 (Schiller Complaint, ¶¶ 6-9; Abdell Amended Complaint, ¶¶ 3-4).
On September 28, 2005, the defendants served subpoenas on the WRL and Frida Berrigan, who had represented the WRL publicly in connection with RNC-related protests. (Subpoenas, attached as Exhs. A and B to Weiler 10/6/06 Letter; Letter of Vera M. Scanlon and Myron Beldock dated Nov. 2, 2006 ("Scanlon and Beldock 11/2/06 Letter"), at 2 n.2; Affidavit of Frida Berrigan dated Nov. 30, 2006 ("Berrigan Aff."), attached to Scanlon and Beldock 11/2/06 Letter, ¶¶ 6, 9). Neither the WRL nor Ms. Berrigan is a party to any RNC-related action. On the same date, the defendants served an identical subpoena on Ed Hedemann, a member of the WRL who is also a plaintiff in Abdell. (Subpoena, attached as Exh. C to Weiler 10/6/06 Letter). The subpoenas commanded Ms. Berrigan, Mr. Hedemann, and the "President or other Officer" of the WRL to appear for deposition, and to produce
[a]ny and all documents . . . that relate or refer to any plans to organize or to engage in civil disobedience, protest(s), march(es), rallies or other events at any time during the Republican National Convention in New York City during the end of August and beginning of September 2004 (including but not limited to the World Trade Center vigil on 8/31/04). (Subpoenas, attached as Exhs. A, B, and C to Weiler 10/6/06 Letter).
On October 5, 2005, Rachel Meeropol, acting on behalf of the WRL and Ms. Berrigan, objected to the subpoenas on the grounds that they were overbroad and vague. (Letter of Rachel Meeropol dated Oct. 5, 2005 ("Meeropol 10/5/05 Letter"), attached as Exh. D to Weilar 10/6/06 letter, at 2). Ms. Meeropol also stated that the subpoenas violated "the core First Amendment protection against government infringement on freedom of speech, assembly and association." (Meeropol 10/5/05 Letter at 2).
In August 2006, the City wrote to Myron Beldock, who had replaced Ms. Meeropol as counsel for the WRL and Ms. Berrigan. The City stated that in response to their concerns, it would modify its request to seek the following documents:
Any and all documents relating to civil disobedience, unlawful activity, or activity without a permit when such activity would otherwise require a permit, in connection with any protests, demonstrations, marches, rallies, processions, parades, vigils, or like events during August 21-September 4, 2004 . . . [as well as a]ny and all documents reflecting communications by the WRL with the City of New York relating to obtaining a permit for any protests, demonstrations, marches, rallies, processions, parades, vigils or like events scheduled to take place between August 21-September 4, 2004. (Letter of Fred M. Weiler dated Aug. 16, 2006 ("Weiler 8/16/06 Letter"), attached as Exh. E to Weiler 10/6/06 Letter, at 1).
After being notified that Mr. Hedemann is a plaintiff in Abdell, the City withdrew the subpoena issued to him and sought the same documents by way of a discovery request. (Letter of Alan Levine dated Nov. 1, 2006 ("Levine 11/1/06 Letter"), at 1 n.1). In response to this request, Mr. Hedemann produced a number of documents from his own files, including WRL flyers, press releases, and other materials related to the August 31, 2004 demonstration. (Weiler 10/6/06 Letter at 2; Levine 11/1/06 Letter at 3). He also produced redacted minutes from WRL meetings on July 28, August 12, and August 19, 2004, at which WRL members discussed their plans for the upcoming demonstration. (Minutes, attached as Exh. G to Weiler 10/6/06 Letter). The redacted portions of these minutes contain the names of WRL members, "discussions of ideas and political perspectives, possible activities that were not adopted by the WRL, and notes about matters unrelated to the August 31, 2004 political activity." (Berrigan Aff., ¶¶ 6-7). The WRL and Ms. Berrigan have informed the City, in response to its revised subpoena, that they will not produce any documents other than the ones already produced by Mr. Hedemann. (Scanlon and Beldock 11/2/06 Letter at 3).
The City now requests an order compelling the WRL and Ms. Berrigan to produce documents responsive to the subpoenas. The City also seeks an order compelling the Abdell plaintiffs, including Mr. Hedemann, to produce unredacted versions of the minutes of any WRL meetings at which the August 31, 2004 protest was discussed.*fn2 Citing the First Amendment guarantees of freedom of speech and freedom of association, the WRL and Ms. ...