The opinion of the court was delivered by: Seybert, District Judge
ORDER ADOPTING REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION
Before this Court is Magistrate Judge A. Kathleen Tomlinson's Report and Recommendation, dated November 30, 2006, regarding Plaintiffs' motion for a preliminary injunction. The Magistrate recommended that this Court preliminarily enjoin the Defendants from implementing certain regulations that were to take effect on Friday, December 1, 2006. Pursuant to FED. R. CIV. P. 72(b), the Defendants objected to certain parts of the Report and Recommendation, and Plaintiffs responded. Pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 636(b)(1), this Court reviews de novo those portions of the Report and Recommendation to which Defendants object. Such de novo review does not entirely replace the Magistrate's efforts.
After carefully reviewing Defendants' objections and hearing oral argument on December 4, 2006, this Court adopts in part and modifies in part the Report and Recommendation and grants Plaintiffs' request for a preliminary injunction. For purposes of this Order, familiarity with the facts of the case is presumed. The Court refers the parties to the facts as stated in the Report and Recommendation.
Defendants have objected to several parts of the Magistrate's Report and Recommendation. Defendants have challenged the Magistrate's conclusion that Plaintiffs will suffer irreparable harm and have a likelihood of success on the merits. Defendants also raise issue with the Magistrate's factual findings. The Court turns to each of Defendants' objections.
I. Defendants Do Not Deny Plaintiffs Will Be Irreparably Harmed Without an Injunction
For this Court to issue a preliminary injunction against "government action taken in the public interest pursuant to a statutory or regulatory scheme," the Plaintiffs must show "(i) irreparable harm absent the injunction and (ii) a likelihood of success on the merits." Freedom Holdings, Inc. v. Spitzer, 408 F.3d 112, 114 (2d Cir. 2005) (citations omitted). A plaintiff satisfies the irreparable harm requirement when it shows that absent a preliminary injunction, it "will suffer 'an injury that is neither remote nor speculative, but actual and imminent,' and one that cannot be remedied 'if a court waits until the end of trial to resolve the harm.'" Id. (citations omitted). Because irreparable harm is "the single most important prerequisite" before a preliminary injunction will issue, Plaintiffs must show first that the injury is "likely" before showing any other requirements. Id.
Defendants attempt to challenge Plaintiffs' claim that they will suffer irreparable harm. However, the Court rejects this argument at the outset because Defendants' argument is circuitous. First, Defendants do not directly address Plaintiffs' claims that they will suffer irreparable harm. Instead, Defendants claim that staying the FDA regulation will not save Plaintiffs from any irreparable harm because the statute - which the FDA regulation "mirrors" - still requires pedigree information back to the manufacturer. Thus, Defendants have essentially acknowledged that Plaintiffs will suffer irreparable harm - it is just a matter of the source of the harm: the PDMA or the FDA regulation.
Accordingly, the Court finds that Plaintiffs have met their burden regarding the irreparable harm prong of a preliminary injunction. Defendants do not deny Plaintiffs will be irreparably harmed. It simply challenges the source of the harm, which does not change that such harm is bound to occur without a preliminary injunction. The Court adopts that portion of the Report and Recommendation finding that Plaintiffs will suffer irreparable harm.
II. Plaintiffs Have Shown a Likelihood of Success on the Merits
The second prong that Plaintiffs must meet for this Court to issue a preliminary injunction is a likelihood of success on the merits. See Freedom Holdings, Inc., 408 F.3d at 114. For purposes of a preliminary injunction, however, this Court need not find with "absolute certainty" that Plaintiffs will succeed on the merits of their claims. Wali v. Coughlin, 754 F.2d 1015, 1025 (2d Cir. 1984) ("A movant . . . need not show that success is an absolute certainty. He need only make a showing that the probability of his prevailing is better than fifty percent. There may remain considerable room for doubt.") Thus, a finding that a plaintiff has more than a fifty-fifty chance of succeeding on the merits of their claims would warrant a finding of a likelihood of success on the merits.
First, Defendants object to the Magistrate's conclusion that the classification fails rational basis review because authorized distributors purchase a significant volume of drugs from unauthorized distributors and then resell those drugs without a pedigree. (Def.'s Mem. of Law 5.) Second, Defendants also claim the Magistrate erred when she found that it was not rational to believe that Congress intended to create a situation where it was impossible for four thousand ...