The opinion of the court was delivered by: Michael H. Holinger, Magistrate Judge
TO THE HONORABLE JED S. RAKOFF, U.S.D.J.
Plaintiff Jose Lugo filed this action pursuant to the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 405(g) and 1383(c)(3). He seeks review of the December 6, 2003 determination by the Commissioner of the Social Security Administration ("Commissioner") denying his three merged applications for Supplemental Security Income ("SSI") benefits -- dated December 22, 1993, November 12, 1997, and August 31, 1999, respectively -- based on a finding that he was not disabled.
The Commissioner has moved to remand this action for further administrative proceedings. He seeks this remand to reopen the evidentiary record and to permit the Administrative Law Judge ("ALJ") to explain how he weighed the medical evidence and medical opinions to arrive at his conclusion that plaintiff was able to perform light work. Plaintiff has cross-moved for remand solely for calculation of SSI benefits.
For the reasons that follow, we recommend that the Commissioner's determination be reversed, that his motion for a remand be granted, that the plaintiff's cross-motion be denied and that the case be remanded for further administrative proceedings.
1. The December 28, 1993 Application and the First Federal Court Action
On December 28, 1993, plaintiff filed his first application for SSI benefits. (Administrative Record Transcript ("Tr.") 39-41.) A Disability Determination and Transmittal form, dated March 30, 1994, indicated Lugo's primary diagnosis as alcoholism and his secondary diagnosis as arthralgia.*fn1 (Tr. 42.) The Social Security Administration ("SSA") initially denied plaintiff's application on April 5, 1994. (Tr. 64.) According to the SSA, the medical evidence showed that Lugo had "pain and stiffness with some restriction of [his] activities and the ability to function normally in every day life," but that he was capable of performing "medium work." (Tr. 66.) The plaintiff filed for reconsideration (Tr. 67), and on January 19, 1995, the Commissioner denied the request. (Tr. 90.) In March 1995, plaintiff requested a hearing before an ALJ. (Tr. 94.) On December 8, 1995, ALJ Mary Cerbone presided over a hearing (Tr. 24-38), at which Lugo was represented by Vivian De La Cruz of Harlem Legal Services. (Tr. 26.)*fn2
On January 5, 1996, ALJ Cerbone issued her decision. (Tr. 10-18.) She found the plaintiff not disabled and not eligible for SSI payments despite his alleged drug, alcohol, kidney and low-back problems. (Tr. 13.) Specifically, she found that while Lugo could not perform his past relevant work, he could perform a "wide range of light work," that there were no "significant" non-exertional limitations that would compromise his capacity to perform light work, and that his testimony regarding constant and totally disabling pain was "not . . . credible to the extent alleged." (Tr. 17-18.)
Plaintiff subsequently filed a request for review with the SSA Appeals Council. On April 10, 1997, the Appeals Council denied plaintiff's request. (Tr. 5-6.)
On May 30, 1997, Lugo filed a complaint in this court seeking review of the ALJ's January 5, 1996 decision. The Commissioner moved, in March 1998, for judgment on the pleadings. In June 1998, Magistrate Judge Katz issued a Report and Recommendation ("R&R"), recommending affirmance of the SSA's denial of benefits. In doing so, he reviewed the treating and consultative physicians' reports and the ALJ's decision and found that the Commissioner's determination that plaintiff was not disabled and was capable of light work was supported by substantial evidence, that the ALJ had not erred in declining to accord controlling weight to the opinion of Lugo's treating physician and that the ALJ had fulfilled her duty to develop the record. (Tr. 191-211.) In short, Judge Katz recommended that the defendant's motion for judgment on the pleadings be granted and the Commissioner's decision affirmed. (Tr. 191.)
On September 28, 1998, the District Court declined to adopt Judge Katz's R&R and instead remanded the case "to further consider any relevant evidence bearing on plaintiff's claims of severe pain and, if she adheres to her original determination, to set forth the reasons these claims are found incredible." (Tr. 217.) The SSA remanded the case to ALJ Newton Greenberg, who conducted a hearing on August 28, 2000. (Tr. 218-25.) For purposes of that hearing, the ALJ merged Lugo's 1993 application with two subsequent applications -- one filed in November 1997, while his lawsuit was pending here, and the other filed in August 1999, after the remand order from this court. The decision by ALJ Greenberg at the 2000 hearing, later affirmed by the Appeals Council, is the subject of this Report and Recommendation.
2. The November 12, 1997 Application
While Lugo's lawsuit was pending in federal court, he filed a second application for SSI benefits, on November 12, 1997, alleging disability based on diabetes, arthritis and mental problems. (Tr. 243-45, 260-65.) On February 2, 1998, the SSA denied his application, finding that his condition was not severe enough to keep him from working. (Tr. 228-31.) Lugo filed for reconsideration (Tr. 232-33), and on May 12, 1998, the SSA denied the request. (Tr. 234-37.) In June 1998, plaintiff requested a hearing before an ALJ. (Tr. 238-39.)
On January 13, 1999, ALJ Greenberg presided over a hearing on the 1997 application, at which Lugo was represented by Christopher Bowes, Esq., of the Center for Disability Advocacy Rights. (Tr. 538-50.) In a decision rendered March 17, 1999, ALJ Greenberg denied Lugo's application (Tr. 169-77), finding that while he could not return to his past relevant work (Tr. 175), he retained the ability to perform the full range of light work and that his capacity for light work was not significantly compromised by any non-exertional limitations. (Tr. 177.) In asserting that plaintiff was capable of performing light work, ALJ Greenberg found that while plaintiff's arthritis could cause back pain, "these symptoms are not of such intensity or frequency to preclude work activity," particularly given that his condition did not require physical therapy or orthopedic surgery, and that Lugo had testified that he could read, watch TV and perform light household chores. (Tr. 175.) In the "Findings" section, ALJ Greenberg opined that Lugo's allegations as to the level of pain he was experiencing were "not consistent with the objective medical evidence and [we]re not credible to the extent alleged." (Tr. 176.) In April 1999, Lugo requested Appeals Council review of the decision. (Tr. 168.)
3. The September 20, 1999 Application and the August 28, 2000 Hearing
Lugo filed a third application for SSI benefits in September 1999 (Tr. 422-26), alleging that he was disabled as a result of kidney, spinal and psychiatric conditions. (Tr. 432.) The SSA denied his claim on December 6, 1999 (Tr. 409-13), finding that his condition was not severe enough to keep him from working and that based on his age, education and experience, he could perform a job requiring medium work. (Tr. 413.) Lugo filed for reconsideration (Tr. 414-15), and on April 11, 2000, the SSA denied the request.
(Tr. 416-19.) In May 2000, plaintiff requested a hearing before an ALJ. (Tr. 420-21.)
On August 28, 2000, ALJ Greenberg presided over the hearing, in which he "merged" Lugo's December 1993, November 1997 and August 1999 SSI applications. (Tr. 551-59.) Lugo was again represented by Mr. Bowes. (Tr. 553.) In a decision dated November 17, 2000 (Tr. 157-65), ALJ Greenberg reviewed the hearing testimony and the entire body of evidence accompanying plaintiff's three SSI applications and found Lugo's "allegations about his limitations due to pain and psychiatric problems not credible, based on the medical evidence." (Tr. 163.) While acknowledging that Lugo experienced pain, ALJ Greenberg found that the record indicated that it was "manageable with medications, and is not of such severity that it prevents the claimant from working. The claimant is employable, but is not motivated: he is a malingerer." (Tr. 163.) ALJ Greenberg also found that Lugo retained "a residual functional capacity for the full range of light work. . . . [with] no limita[ti]ons on mental functioning." (Id.)
In December 2000, plaintiff's counsel requested an Appeals Council review of the ALJ's decision (Tr. 153) and submitted a letter-brief, dated June 28, 2002, outlining specific objections to that decision. (Tr. 149-51.) The Appeals Council denied review in a notice dated December 6, 2003. (Tr. 147-48.)
4. The Second Federal Court Action
On February 9, 2004, Lugo filed the instant action in federal court, seeking review and reversal of the Commissioner's determination denying all three of his applications for SSI benefits. On July 27, 2004, the Commissioner responded with a motion for remand, seeking reversal of the November 2000 decision and a remand of the case for further administrative proceedings. (Mem. of Law in Supp. of Def.'s Mot. for Remand 1.) Plaintiff has in turn sought an order finding him disabled and remanding solely for calculation of benefits. (Mem. of Law in Supp. of Pl.'s Cross-Mot. for J. on the Pleadings 1.)
Lugo was born on April 28, 1953 in the Dominican Republic. (Tr. 26-27.) He testified at his first hearing that he had completed one year of high school in the Dominican Republic (Tr. 28), but testified at his second hearing that he had completed only the sixth grade. (Tr. 541.) He can read and write Spanish, but speaks no English. (Tr. 28.) He arrived in the United States in 1982 and has permanent residency status. (Tr. 27, 246-246a, 541.)
Lugo lives with his wife. (Tr. 27, 542.) He testified that he is able to take care of his basic personal needs, including dressing and washing himself, but is unable to perform household chores. (Tr. 33-34.) In the past, Lugo worked in a fish market, as a street painter and as a security officer at a supermarket, a job that required him to lift up to eighty pounds. (Tr. 28, 35.) Lugo reported last looking for work sometime between 1989 and 1991 and stated that he was receiving public assistance. (Tr. 541-42.)
Lugo has a history of drug and alcohol abuse. At his first hearing in 1995, he stated that he had last used cocaine three years previously (i.e., in 1992) and had then enrolled in a three-year treatment program, which he had completed. (Tr. 28-29.) At his second hearing, in January 1999, he stated that he had stopped using cocaine "[o]ver five or seven years ago" (Tr. 542) and that he had been a heavy drinker for many years. (Tr. 543.) Lugo's drug and alcohol use were not discussed at his third hearing.
With regard to his physical ailments, Lugo testified that he suffered from pain related to kidney stones and had undergone a lithotripsy*fn3 in 1994, a procedure that destroys kidney stones with a laser. (Tr. 29, 131.) He asserted that his kidney stone attacks were accompanied by diarrhea, vomiting and pain that lasted, in slightly varying accounts, either two to three hours (Tr. 36) or five to six hours. (Tr. 555.) He stated that painkillers relieved the pain after one to two hours. (Tr. 555-56.) According to Lugo, he passed a kidney stone two weeks prior to the first hearing (Tr. 29) and a month or two before the third hearing, although at the third hearing he reported that he had had pain the week before (though he did not specifically say whether he had passed a stone). (Tr. 556.) He estimated at the third hearing that he felt the pain and vomiting symptoms associated with the stones on a more-or-less monthly basis. (Tr. 556.) As to symptoms, he described "very strong pain" in his back when he passed stones (Tr. 37), accompanied by blood in his urine. (Tr. 29, 37.) He explained that if the stone did not pass on its own, he would see a doctor. (Tr. 556.)
Lugo complained of lower back pain -- separate from the pain he experienced from kidney stones -- due to arthritis. (Tr. 30-31, 548-49, 557.) He testified that he also had arthritis in his legs, arms and neck, and that these areas would become numb and he would lose strength in his arms approximately two to three times a week. (Tr. 30.) At the third hearing, he stated that he could not move his neck, back and sometimes his hands. (Tr. 557.) At the time of the first hearing, he had been walking with a cane for ten months due to the arthritis (Tr. 30-31) and reported that, although he had taken a subway to the hearing, he experienced difficulty in traveling by public transportation, because the standing and motion caused him pain. (Tr. 27.) Also at the first hearing, he claimed that he could walk only two blocks, could stand for an hour or two, could not bend, could kneel only with difficulty, could sit for up to an hour and could carry five pounds only with difficulty. (Tr. 31-32.) At the second hearing, he asserted that he felt back pain every day and that he took medication daily to relieve the pain, but that the medication was only forty to fifty percent effective. (Tr. 548-49.)
At the first hearing, in 1995, Lugo did not testify that he suffered from any mental or emotional problems, though his disability examiner did list his alcoholism as his primary diagnosis on his Disability Determination and Transmittal. (Tr. 42.) At the second hearing, in 1999, he asserted that he had been treated at a psychiatric hospital in the Dominican Republic after having been shot and mugged when was in his twenties. (Tr. 543.) He also claimed at the same hearing that he was seeing a psychiatrist and was taking three medications daily; however, he could remember the name of only one, Ambien, a sleep aid. (Tr. 542, 550.) He also reported that he was afraid to go out because he heard voices calling him at various times during the day (Tr. 543-45), and he alluded to experiencing problems with his memory. (Tr. 549-50.) At his third hearing, in 2000, plaintiff's counsel asserted that Lugo had "significant mental limitations due to major depression." (Tr. 557.)
B. The Medical Record Before the ALJ
Plaintiff was regularly treated by Dr. Clayton Natta, an internist and hematologist, since August 14, 1992. (Tr. 128-33.) Dr. Natta provided four reports or summaries between 1993 and 1998. (Tr. 115, 128-31, 133-39, 500.)
According to Dr. Natta, plaintiff suffered from lower back pain after falling twice in the snow in 1992. The pain persisted and required analgesics. Lugo also suffered from periodic kidney stones, which were treated by a lithotripsy at Brooklyn Hospital in 1994. (Tr. 128.) Dr. Natta diagnosed nephrolithiasis (i.e., kidney stones) in the left kidney, Type II diabetes, atopic dermatitis, osteoarthritis of the lumbar spine and respiratory allergies. (Tr. 131, 133.) To treat these conditions, Lugo underwent the 1994 lithotripsy, adopted a 1500-calorie diabetic diet, and received medication for periodic urinary tract infections and analgesics for his lower back pain. (Tr. 131.) According to Dr. Natta, Lugo's back pain persisted despite the use of increasingly powerful analgesics. (Tr. 131, 134.)*fn4
Dr. Natta opined on two occasions -- September 14, 1995 (Tr. 137) and October 9, 1998 (Tr. 500) -- that plaintiff was unable to work, apparently because of his low-back pain. In support of that conclusion, he provided findings of lumbar spine tenderness, 2 muscle spasm, twenty to twenty-five percent loss of motion in the lumbar spine, loss of lumbar curvature and a recurring macular rash. (Tr. 129.) He also mentioned blood in the urine, nocturia*fn5 and a burning sensation on urination. (Tr. 133.) As for plaintiff's physical limitations, the doctor opined that Lugo could regularly sit for only one-half hour to one hour daily, that he could stand or walk for only one hour, and that he could not lift or carry, push, pull, bend, squat, climb or reach on a sustained basis, although he could perform grasping and fine manipulation with his hands. (Tr. 135-36.) He further stated that plaintiff could not regularly travel by bus or subway. (Tr. 137.)
Dr. Natta's last written statement was dated October 9, 1998. (Tr. 500.) He reported that plaintiff was being treated for degenerative joint disease (specifically sclerosis of the sacroiliac joints)*fn6 and latent luetic infection,*fn7 that he was status post-left hydrocelectomy*fn8 and that he suffered from kidney stones (nephrolithiasis) and Type II diabetes. He also reported that plaintiff continued to take Motrin 600 mg, Tylenol #3 and Flexeril. He reiterated, however, that plaintiff was "unable to work in any capacity." (Tr. 500.)
Plaintiff was also treated in 1997 by Dr. Joerg Bose for a case of major depression with dysthymic disorder,*fn9 which Dr. Bose characterized as moderate to severe. (Tr. 325-30.) According to the psychiatrist, Lugo presented as unmotivated and tearful. His mood was sad and his affect restless. (Tr. 327.) Dr. Bose found plaintiff limited in his capacity for understanding and memory but not limited in the areas of sustained concentration and adaptation. (Tr. 329.)
The record also includes documents from Columbia Presbyterian Hospital for the period from March 1994 to September 1997. In March 1994, Lugo was diagnosed with a kidney stone, which caused pain, fever, some bleeding (hematuria) and fever. (Tr. 310.) He passed the stone and was discharged. In June 1994, he had a similar episode and was scheduled for a lithotripsy. (Tr. 303.) Periodic reports of a similar nature are scattered throughout plaintiff's medical records from 1994 to 1996, with reference to a lithotripsy actually having been performed in 1995 at Brooklyn Hospital. (Tr. 298, 300, 393-95.) In 1997, a radiological examination yielded a finding of "sclerosis of the sacroiliac joints bilaterally," probably indicating degenerative joint disease. (Tr. 292, 398, 465.)
The record also contains a host of reports by consulting doctors. We summarize their results in chronological order.
In March 1994, Dr. Alain DelaChapelle, a psychiatrist, conducted a mental-status examination of Lugo. He reported that plaintiff was participating in an alcohol rehabilitation program and did not show any depression or psychotic symptoms. (Tr. 118.) He stated that plaintiff was hoping to "get back on his feet and return to work." The psychiatrist diagnosed alcohol dependence and suggested continuing alcohol counseling. He characterized Lugo's prognosis as "fair." (Tr. 119.)
In March 1994, Dr. A. DeLeon, an internist, examined plaintiff for the SSA. He summarized plaintiff's reported history of kidney stones ("nephrolithiasis"), arthralgia of the neck and back, alcoholism and histories of drug abuse and depression. (Tr. 120.) He then summarized his findings from the physical examination, stating that plaintiff could bend forward to 60 degrees and that no tenderness or muscle spasm was observed at L3-L4 in the lumbar spine. (Tr. 121.) A follow-up x-ray of the cervical spine was found to be normal. (Tr. 123.) Dr. DeLeon found that plaintiff could sit without limitation and was only "slightly limited" in other exertional activities. (Tr. 122.) He offered a prognosis of "fair." (Tr. 122.)
On January 5, 1995 plaintiff underwent a consultative physical examination by Dr. Howard Finger, an internist (Tr. 124-26), and another psychiatric examination by Dr. DelaChappelle. (Tr. 116-17.) Dr. Finger mentioned depression and reported that plaintiff had said that he had difficulty sleeping. He stated that plaintiff had reported that he had stopped drinking and using cocaine in the last one to two years. He also noted plaintiff's complaint of kidney stones and back and neck pain. (Tr. 124.)
Based on his physical examination of Lugo, Dr. Finger stated that Lugo's straight leg raising was negative to sixty degrees. Plaintiff reported diffuse low-back pain on flexion of the lumbar spine past seventy to eighty degrees, but the range of motion in his cervical spine was normal. The doctor noted no muscle spasm, although he observed that plaintiff's gait was slow. He determined that Lugo's lower extremity strength and grip strength were reduced to 4 bilaterally. (Tr. 125.) Finally, he noted that Lugo's blood tests were normal. The doctor offered a "fair" prognosis. He diagnosed a history of alcohol and cocaine abuse, a history of kidney stones, chronic low-back disorder, arthralgia of the cervical spine and a history of depression and insomnia. He noted no gross difficulties in sitting and opined that plaintiff "may be mildly limited" in other exertional activities. (Tr. 126.)
During Dr. DelaChappelle's second psychiatric evaluation, he reported Lugo's assertion that he had suffered from depression for about one year, which Lugo attributed to his medical problems. Dr. DelaChapelle observed that Lugo appeared "mildly depressed" on a mental-status exam and was unable to do "serial sevens" accurately. (Tr. 116.) Lugo reportedly told the doctor that he stayed at home, reading or watching television, that he rarely socialized and that he relied on his wife to do most household chores. The doctor diagnosed Lugo with both cocaine abuse in remission and a depressive disorder, for which he recommended psychiatric treatment. He listed Lugo's prognosis as "fair." (Tr. 117.)
On January 7, 1998, Lugo underwent another physical examination by Dr. Finger. (Tr. 319-21.) After summarizing plaintiff's history -- including kidney stones, arthritis and low-back pain, diabetes, high blood pressure and a nervous condition, as well as drinking and drug use -- the doctor reported his physical findings. Lugo's straight leg raising was negative to sixty degrees bilaterally. He was able to flex the spine to forty fifty degrees before encountering "moderate diffuse low back pain," with no observed muscle spasm. Dr. Finger observed that plaintiff's gait was slow and mildly to moderately stiff. (Tr. 320.) Plaintiff exhibited mild crepitus*fn10 in the knees. The doctor estimated the strength in his lower extremities at 4. (Tr. 321.)
Dr. Finger also ordered radiological studies. These revealed mild scoliosis and minimal osteoarthritis of the lumbosacral spine. (Tr. 323.) The radiological report noted "eburnative changes with both sacroiliac joints, more pronounced on the inferior aspect." (Id.)*fn11 Dr. Finger diagnosed chronic low-back disorder, non-insulin-dependent diabetes, arthralgias of the hands, knees and shoulders and a history of kidney stones, depression and alcohol abuse. (Tr. 321.) He further concluded that plaintiff was "mildly to moderately limited" in his ability to stand, walk, lift and carry and "mildly limited" in sitting. He opined that plaintiff's prognosis was "guarded." (Tr. 321.)
Two weeks later, plaintiff underwent another psychiatric exam by Dr. DelaChappelle. (Tr. 334-35.) Lugo reported experiencing depression, sadness, nervousness, insomnia and suicidal ideation. He also mentioned that he had been in psychiatric treatment for the prior six months with Dr. Chattah, a psychiatrist, and ...