The opinion of the court was delivered by: Andrew J. Peck, United States Magistrate Judge
Pro Se plaintiff Anthony Suarato brings this action alleging that defendant Building Services 32BJ Pension Fund improperly denied Suarato his "long-term disability benefits and disability pension." (D.t. No. 1: Comal.)*fn1 The parties have consented to decision of this case by a Magistrate Judge pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 636(c). (D.t. No. 26.)
Presently before the Court are the parties' cross-motions for summary judgment based on the administrative record before the Funds. For the reasons set forth below, Cerate's summary judgment motion is DENIED, defendant's summary judgment motion is GRANTED, and Cerate's complaint is dismissed.
Defendant's Health and Pension Funds
Defendant Health Fund is governed by an Agreement and Declaration of Trust, administered by management and union trustees. (Def. Rule 56.1 SMT. ¶ 3; D.t. No. 30: Johnson Off. ¶ 3 & Ex. C: Health Fund Agreement & Decl. of Trust.)*fn2 The Trust Agreement provides the Trustees with discretion:
The Trustees shall have all the general and incidental powers necessary or appropriate to the proper administration of the Plan and the Trust Fund, . . . . Included within such Trustee powers but not by way of limitation, shall be the power:
(a) To adopt a Plan and amend it from time to time as the Trustees determine in their sole and absolute discretion;
(b) To pay or provide for the payment of Benefits in accordance with the Plan, and determine the manner of payment of such Benefits;
(c) To process and approve or deny claims for payments of Benefits, determining whether the conditions for the payment of Benefits as set forth in this Trust Agreement and the Plan have been fulfilled and whether any exceptions or exclusions are applicable;
(e) To decide, in the Trustee's sole discretion, all questions (both factual and legal) relating to the eligibility or rights of Participants or Beneficiaries for Benefits under the Plan, and the amount and kind of all Benefits to be paid under the Plan;
(f) To interpret, in the Trustees' sole discretion, all terms in this Trust Agreement or in the Plan, including the resolution or clarification of any ambiguities, omissions, or inconsistencies;
(g) To make, amend, modify or repeal rules and regulations which the Trustees, in their sole discretion, deem necessary or proper for administering the Plan or carrying out the provisions of this Trust Agreement;. . . .
(Ex. C: Health Fund Agreement & Decl. of Trust at 12-13, emphasis added; see Def. Rule 56.1 SMT. ¶ 3.)
The Health Fund's Summary Plan Description ("SPED") describes inter alia the Health Fund's long term disability benefits, requiring "totally disability," defined as being "unable to perform work in any capacity." (Ex. D: Health Fund SPED at 11; see Def. Rule 56.1 SMT. ¶¶ 4-5.) The Health Fund SPED provides the following regarding "[medical [proof": To be considered as an applicant for Total and Permanent Disability Benefits, the applicant must provide the Plan with medical proof of disability certified by a qualified physician. The Fund may require that you submit to a medical examination by a qualified medical doctor selected by the Fund for determination of disability or continued disability. If so, the cost of the examination will be paid for by the Plan.
All determinations as to an applicant's disability are made in the sole and absolute discretion of The Board of Trustees or their designees. (Ex. D: Health Fund SPED at 12, emphasis added; see Def. Rule 56.1 SMT. ¶ 6.)
The Health Fund SPED describes the Trustees' responsibilities and authority:
In carrying out their respective responsibilities under the Plan, the Trustees, other Plan fiduciaries, and individuals to whom responsibility for the administration of the Plan has been delegated have discretionary authority to interpret the terms of the Plan, to determine eligibility and entitlement to benefits in accordance with the terms of the Plan, and to decide any fact related to eligibility for an entitlement to benefits. Any interpretation or determination made under the discretionary authority will be given full force and effect, unless it can be shown that the interpretation or determination was arbitrary and capricious. (Ex. D: Health Fund SPED at iv, emphasis added; see Def. Rule 56.1 SMT. ¶ 7.) Under the heading "Discretionary Action," the Health Fund SPED reserves to the Trustees the right in their sole discretion: . . . .
(d) to interpret the provisions of this Plan.
(e) to apply the provisions of this Plan to the circumstances of any claim.
(f) to determine the facts that are relevant to any claims based upon the submissions made to them or to cause additional investigation to be made, as they may deem appropriate. (Ex. D: Health Fund SPED at 79, emphasis added; see Def. Rule 56.1 SMT. ¶ 8.) The Health Fund SPED, under the heading "Plan Interpretation," provides that:
The Board of Trustees and/or its duly authorized designee(s) has the exclusive right, power, and authority, in its sole and absolute discretion, to administer, apply, and interpret the Plan, including this booklet and any other Plan documents, and to decide all matters (including financial matters) arising in connection with the operation or administration of this Fund. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, The Board of Trustees and/or its duly authorizes designee(s) will have the sole and absolute discretionary authority to:
* Take all actions and make all decisions (including factual decisions) with respect to the eligibility for and the amount of benefits payable under the Plan;
* Formulate, interpret, and apply the rules and policies necessary to administer the Plan in accordance with the terms of the Plan;
* Decide questions, including legal or factual issues, relating to the calculation and payment of benefits under the Plan; (Ex. D: Health Fund SPED at 79, emphasis added; see Def. Rule 56.1 SMT. ¶ 9.)
Defendant Pension Fund also is governed by an Agreement and Declaration of Trust containing identical language to the Health Fund's Agreement and Declaration of Trust regarding the Trustee's powers, including their discretion to interpret the Plan and decide eligibility for benefits. (Ex. E: Pension Fund Agreement & Decl. of Trust at 12-13; accord, Ex. C: Health Fund Agt. & Decl. of Trust at 12-13; see Def. Rule 56.1 SMT. ¶ 10.)
The Pension Fund Plan describes the Fund's benefits and provides: Section 4.09 Disability Pension - Eligibility. A Participant is eligible for a Disability Pension if he meets the following requirements:
(a) he is totally and permanently disabled (as defined in Section 4.11);
(b) he has at least 120 months of Service Credits; and
(c) he became permanently and totally disabled while working in Covered Employment.
Section 4.11 Definition of Total and Permanent Disability. A Participant shall be deemed totally and permanently disabled if on the basis of medical evidence satisfactory to the Trustees, he is found to have become, while working in Covered Employment, totally and permanently unable, as a result of bodily injury or disease, to engage in any further employment or gainful pursuit. The Trustees or their authorized delegate(s) shall determine whether the Participant is totally and permanently disabled, when the disability became total and permanent, and the entitlement to a Disability Pension hereunder, in their sole and absolute discretion as provided in Section 7.07, based upon information submitted.
Section 4.12 Physical Examination. A Participant applying for a Disability Pension may be required to submit to an examination by a physician or physicians selected by the Trustees. . . . .
Section 7.07 Powers of Trustees. The Trustees, and any committee of the Trustees designated by the Trustees in accordance with the provisions of, and in the manner provided by, the Trust Agreement, shall have the exclusive right, power, and authority, in their sole and absolute discretion, to administer, apply and interpret the Plan and any other Plan documents and to decide all matters arising in connection with the operation or administration of the Plan. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, the Trustees, and any committee of the Trustees designated by the Trustees in accordance with the provisions of, and in the manner provided by, the Trust Agreement, shall have the sole and absolute discretionary authority to:
(a) take all actions and make all decisions with respect to the eligibility for, and the amount of, benefits payable under the Plan;
(b) formulate, interpret and apply rules, regulations and policies necessary to administer the Plan in accordance with its terms;
(c) decide questions, including legal or factual questions, relating to the calculation and payments of benefits under the Plan;
(d) resolve and/or clarify any ambiguities, inconsistencies and omissions arising under the Plan or other Plan documents; and
(e) process, and approve or deny, benefit claims and rule on any benefit exclusions.
All determinations made by the Trustees, or any committee of the Trustees designated by the Trustees in accordance with the provisions of, and in the manner provided by, the Trust Agreement, with respect to any matter arising under the Plan and any other Plan documents shall be final and binding on all affected Participants, their Beneficiaries, and any other persons who claim benefits from the Plan through any of them. The Trustees may delegate such duties or powers as they deem necessary to carry out the administration of the Plan. (Ex. F: Pension Fund Plan at 11, 24, emphasis added; see Def. Rule 56.1 SMT. ¶ 12.)
The Pension Fund Summary Plan Description more specifically describes the requirements for qualifying as disabled:
You are eligible for Disability Pension if you have at least 120 months of Service Credit and you become totally and permanently disabled after January 1, 1981, while working in Covered Employment.
Total and permanent disability is the inability to work in any capacity, as determined in the discretion of the Trustees or persons they designate. You will not satisfy this definition of total and permanent disability just because you are unable to continue working at your usual occupation; you must be unable to perform any ...