The opinion of the court was delivered by: John F. Keenan, United States District Judge
This Document Relates to: All actions
MEMORANDUM OPINION & ORDER
Before the Court is plaintiffs' motion to compel the production of documents pursuant to Rule 26 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. The gravamen of this motion is defendant Merck's refusal to produce certain materials predating 2003. The Court finds that the pre-2003 materials are relevant to plaintiffs' claims and must be produced, with certain significant restrictions that are detailed below. Plaintiffs' motion is granted in part.
This multidistrict litigation ("MDL") now includes over 550 actions. Plaintiffs claim that their ingestion of Fosamax caused them to develop osteonecrosis of the jaw ("ONJ") and other jaw-related injuries. Fosamax is an oral bisphosphonate used to treat osteoporosis and other bone disorders. It was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") on September 29, 1995, was first sold shortly thereafter, and has been on the market ever since. Reports of an association between ONJ and intravenously administered bisphosphonates first appeared in the U.S. published medical literature in September of 2003. An association between ONJ and oral bisphosphonates such as Fosamax was published the following spring. In July of 2005, Merck at the behest of the FDA added a "precaution" to Fosamax's label stating that ONJ has been reported in patients undergoing bisphosphonate therapy.
Plaintiffs used Fosamax at various times and for various durations throughout this span of years. Their complaints assert multiple causes of action against Merck, including strict liability for design defect and failure to warn, negligence and breach of warranty. To prevail on some of their claims, plaintiffs will have to prove, among other things, that Merck knew or should have known of a risk of ONJ before Fosamax allegedly caused their injuries, and that Merck failed to properly design and test Fosamax or warn of its risks.
Pursuant to Case Management Order ("CMO") No. 3, discovery in this MDL is currently scheduled to be completed on the last day of this year. CMO No. 3. ¶ 10. Fact discovery in the twenty-five potential early trial cases is scheduled to end on August 1, 2008, less than two months away. CMO 10 ¶ 5 (entered Jan. 31, 2007). These deadlines will be extended by two months, as stated in the final paragraph below, in light of this order compelling Merck to produce additional documents.
The Court has already reviewed discovery in this case that was submitted last year in connection with plaintiffs' unsuccessful motions for class certification. See In re Fosamax Prods. Liab. Litig., 248 F.R.D. 349 n.1 (S.D.N.Y. Jan. 3, 2008). Included within this were the affidavit and deposition testimony of plaintiffs' expert, Dr. Marx, who opined that a patient's risk of developing ONJ is "small" or "insignificant" until she has used Fosamax continuously for three years. Id. at 394, 397 n.9.
Plaintiffs served their First Request for Production of Documents on November 21, 2006. Merck served its objections and responses to the requests on January 22, 2007. (Decl. of David J Heubeck, Exh. 1 (Def.'s Objections and Responses to Plaintiff's First Request for Productions of Documents)). Merck objected generally to producing "any documents or information relating to FOSAMAX(r) prior to September 2003, the date when osteonecrosis of the jaw was first reported in the literature as occurring in temporal association with bisphosphonates." Id. at ¶ 4. Excepted from this date limitation were the official Investigational New Drug ("IND") and New Drug Application ("NDA") files, which Merck produced without any date limitation. These files contain documents relating to Merck's communications with the FDA about the development, approval, and post-marketing surveillance of Fosamax. They account for 856,992 of the roughly 1.4 million pages produced by Merck so far. (Def.'s Mem. at 7-8.) Besides these materials, Merck has also produced other categories of documents without any date limitation.*fn1
In a letter dated March 1, 2007, plaintiffs challenged Merck's objections to their discovery requests, including its objection to producing documents predating September 2003. (Decl. of David Heubeck Exh. 2 (Mar. 1, 2007 Letter from the PSC to David Heubeck and William Beausoleil)). The parties met and conferred in New York on March 8, 2007. Merck then sent a letter dated April 27, 2007 addressing the discovery issues raised at the conference. (Id., Exh. 3 (Apr. 27, 2007 Letter from David Heubeck to James F. Green and Shelley Sanford)). The letter stated that ONJ first surfaced in temporal association with Fosamax in 2003 and that Merck would produce certain categories of documents only back to the beginning of that year. Plaintiffs did not file this motion until April 18, 2008, almost a year later, claiming that discovery negotiations have finally reached an impasse. (Pls.' Mem. at 5).
1. The 2003 Date Limitation
Merck has imposed the 2003 date limitation on the following categories of documents: Field Sales Bulletins; Responses to Physician Information Requests ("PIRs"); Sales Training Materials; Labeling Meeting Minutes; Board of Director Meeting Minutes; correspondence with the FDA's Division of Drug Marketing, Advertising, and Communications ("DDMAC"); files from the Osteoporosis Marketing Team ("OMT") and its predecessor groups, and Sales Representative Discovery. Merck's rationale for withholding these pre-2003 materials is based on the fact that bisphosphonate-associated ONJ was not reported in the published medical literature until that year. Merck asserts that it could not have known of any association between ONJ and Fosamax before the first published reports, and that this is confirmed by the hundreds of thousands of pre-2003 documents that it has already produced. (Def.'s Mem. at 2, 13-14, 15-16.) Therefore, Merck contends, the pre-2003 documents are not relevant to plaintiffs' claims. In addition, Merck claims that the expense of collecting, reviewing and producing the pre-2003 documents would outweigh its likely benefit. (Id. at 2, 17, 19.)
Plaintiffs contend that the 2003 date limitation is unreasonable. They assert that cases of bisphosphonate-associated ONJ existed prior to 2003 and that this association could have been known or reasonably knowable to Merck before then. (Pls.' Mem. at 1, 8-9; Pls.' Reply Mem. at 3-4.) Also, they maintain that their injury claims are not limited to ONJ but encompass other jaw-related injuries. (Pls.' Mem. at 1, 8-9.) Therefore, the requested documents are relevant and should be produced from the date Fosamax was first developed or, at the latest, 1995 - the year of Fosamax's FDA-approval and market release.*fn2
According to plaintiffs, field sales bulletins were used by Merck to disseminate new information, marketing instructions and promotional tools regarding Fosamax to Merck's sales representatives. Such information includes "obstacle handlers," which are scripted answers that a sales representative would provide in response to a physician's questions and concerns. Plaintiffs claim that these bulletins may contain communications about a potential relationship between Fosamax therapy and ONJ or other jaw conditions. This would be relevant to their claims of failure to warn and design defect, according to plaintiffs, because it could show that Merck had notice of a risk and instructed its sales representatives to understate it. (Pls.' Mem. at 11-12.)
Merck has produced field sale bulletins created after 2003, totaling 3,508 pages, but objects to producing any bulletins created before this date on grounds of irrelevance and burdensomeness, described above. (Def.'s Mem. at 7, 16-17.)
Plaintiffs have requested information that Merck provided in response to all inquiries about Fosamax from physicians. These documents are referred to as "concepts" or responses to "Physician Information Requests" ("PIRs"). Plaintiffs state that responses to PIRs "typically may contain summaries of both published and unpublished clinical trial data, comparisons to other drugs, discussions of medical literature, and/or product labeling." (Pls.' Mem. at 12.) Plaintiffs believe that the PIRs might contain admissions by Merck or concerns raised by Merck's employees or physicians about ONJ or jaw-related issues.
Merck has produced all PIRs created after 2003, totaling 28,555 pages. Merck has also agreed to produce any responses to PIRs sent to a plaintiff's prescribing physician, even those sent before 2003, but only up until six months after that plaintiff's last Fosamax prescription. However, Merck objects to producing all pre-2003 responses to PIRs, or responses sent to a plaintiffs' prescribing physician more than six months after that plaintiffs' last Fosamax prescription. (Def.'s Mem. at 17 & n. 18.)
c. Sales Training Materials
Plaintiffs have requested that Merck produce all sales representative training materials. These include both training materials relating specifically to Fosamax and those relating generally to sales representatives' interactions with physicians. Plaintiffs assert that instructions given by Merck to its sales representatives regarding their communication with physicians, contained in these training materials, are "highly relevant to issues of notice, fraud, and failure to warn." (Pls.' Mem. at 14.)
Merck has already produced the Fosamax-specific training materials currently in use (1,157 pages), along with others created after 2003 (1,641 pages). (Def.'s Mem. at 7.) In addition, it has agreed to soon produce generic training materials created after 2003. However, Merck objects to turning over any Fosamax-specific or generic training materials predating 2003.
d. Materials Related to Fosamax Labeling
Plaintiffs have requested any summaries or minutes of internal meetings at which Fosamax labeling was discussed. They contend that these materials "may contain admissions and/or provide insight into the dialogue between Merck and regulatory agencies relating to the safety and efficacy disclosures for Fosamax. Further, this material may indicate whether Merck or regulatory agencies, independent of any scientific literature, had safety concerns about Fosamax or bisphosphonates generally prior to 2003." (Pls.' Mem. at 15.) Merck has produced ...