The opinion of the court was delivered by: Sifton, Senior Judge.
MEMORANDUM OPINION AND ORDER
Howard Lasker ("plaintiff"), on behalf of himself and others similarly situated, filed this purported class action against UBS Loan Finance LLC and UBS Securities LLC (collectively "UBS") on February 1, 2008*fn1 alleging tortious interference with a business relationship arising out of a planned, but aborted, merger between Genesco, Inc. ("Genesco") and The Finish Line, Inc. ("Finish Line"). Now before this court is UBS's motion for judgment on the pleadings pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(c). For the reasons set forth below, UBS's motion is granted.
The following statement is drawn from the complaint and is assumed to be true for purposes of this motion. Plaintiff is a resident of Brooklyn, New York, and a holder of Genesco common stock. Non-party Genesco, a Tennessee corporation that maintains its headquarters in Nashville, Tennessee, is a retailer and wholesaler of branded footwear and a retailer of branded head wear. Genesco's shares are traded on the New York Stock Exchange. Non-party Finish Line, an Indiana corporation that maintains its headquarters in Indianapolis, Indiana, is a large mall-based retailer of athletic apparel and shoes operating under the Finish Line, Man Alive, and Paiva brand names. Finish line's shares are traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market. Headwind, Inc. ("Headwind") is a Tennessee corporation and wholly owned subsidiary of Finish Line formed for the sole purpose of completing a merger between Finish Line and Genesco.
Defendants UBS Securities LLC and UBS Loan Finance LLC are wholly owned subsidiaries of UBS AG and Delaware corporations with their principal places of business in New York.*fn2 UBS AG is an investment banking and securities firm headquartered in Zurich, Switzerland.
On June 17, 2007, Finish Line entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger ("Merger Agreement") to acquire Genesco. UBS Securities LLC served as Finish Line's financial advisor in connection with the merger and issued an opinion to Finish Line that the merger was fair from a financial point of view to Finish Line and its shareholders. Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, Finish Line was to pay $54.50 per share in cash for all the outstanding common stock of Genesco held by plaintiff and other members of the purported class. The merger was to be funded by $1.6 billion in debt financing from UBS. The Merger Agreement expressly stated that it conferred no rights upon any party as a third-party beneficiary. Further, pursuant to the Merger Agreement, if Genesco suffered a Material Adverse Effect, UBS would be excused from its obligations under the Agreement. Both the Merger Agreement and Commitment Letter, however, specifically excluded performance shortfalls due to industry-wide fluctuations from the definition of Material Adverse Effect.*fn3 Finish Line and UBS executed a commitment letter ("Commitment Letter") setting forth the terms of the financing on June 17, 2007. Also on June 17, 2007, Finish Line filed a Form 8-K*fn4 with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"), announcing the UBS commitment.
Genesco filed its proxy statement*fn5 with the SEC on July 11, 2007. On July 23, 2007, the SEC notified Genesco that it would not review the proxy statement and that Genesco could file and disseminate it. Shortly thereafter, Finish Line informed Genesco that it needed additional time to complete the UBS financing transaction.
On August 6, 2007, an article in the Indianapolis Business Journal reported that tightening of the credit markets along with a decline in Finish Line's operating performance and stock price "spooked" UBS and that some analysts had begun speculating whether UBS would "pull the plug" on its financing commitment. The article further reported that Finish Line's Chief Financial Officer, Kevin Wampler, stated during a June 29, 2007 conference call with analysts that neither Finish Line's falling share price nor the tightening of the credit markets "give UBS an out" from its financing commitment.
On August 14, 2007, the necessary regulatory approvals for the merger were obtained. On August 30, 2007 Genesco issued a press release announcing its second quarter 2007 financials. Genesco's earnings were lower than analysts' estimates and it reported a loss of $0.13 per share.
On September 11, 2007, UBS wrote to Finish Line that UBS was "extremely concerned" about the "apparent deteriorating financial position" of Genesco and that UBS was reserving its rights with respect to its obligation to complete the financing. The financial results announced by Genesco on August 30, 2007, were consistent with results experienced by others in the industry, including Finish Line.*fn6 UBS had been receiving weekly updates concerning Genesco's financial results.
On September 13, 2007, UBS wrote a second letter to Finish Line to report that UBS was "not yet satisfied that Genesco has not experienced a Material Adverse Effect." On September 14, 2007, in response to this contention, Genesco issued a press release stating, "no 'material adverse effect' under the previously announced merger agreement with Finish Line has occurred with respect to Genesco."
On September 17, 2007 Genesco's shareholders, at a special shareholder meeting, approved the merger. Thus, as of September 17, 2007, Genesco had satisfied all of the pre-conditions to closing set forth in the Merger Agreement. Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, an obligation to close on or before September 19, 2007 was triggered.
On September 18, 2007, counsel for Finish Line e-mailed counsel for Genesco to advise Genesco that UBS decided to stop any further work towards closing the financing transaction "pending the results of its analyses of Genesco's financial condition and performance."
On September 19, 2007, Genesco issued a press release which contained a letter from its Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Hal Pennington. Pennington stated that Finish Line and UBS had failed to meet deadlines for obtaining the UBS financing needed to consummate the merger and set forth his belief that UBS was looking for a way out of its commitment because certain external factors, including upheaval in the credit markets, made the merger less profitable for UBS.*fn7
Also on September 19, 2007, Finish Line issued a press release announcing that UBS had decided to stop work on the closing documents for the financing and that Finish Line would "consider its options" under the Merger Agreement.
On September 21, 2007, Genesco filed suit in Chancery Court in Nashville, Tennessee ("Chancery Court"), against Finish Line and UBS ("Genesco Tennessee Action") seeking an order requiring Finish Line to consummate the Merger with Genesco and to enforce Finish Line's rights against UBS under the Commitment Letter.
On October 9, 2007, plaintiff filed a purported class action in the Chancery Court against Finish Line, Headwind, and UBS ("Lasker State Action"). The factual predicate for plaintiff's claims against the defendants in the Lasker State Action was the same as the predicate in the instant matter, the aborted Genesco-Finish Line merger. As in the complaint in this case, plaintiff accused UBS of undermining the merger and asserted that UBS's alleged conduct harmed Genesco shareholders by preventing the merger from closing. Plaintiff sought to compel Finish Line's specific performance of the Merger Agreement or, in the alternative, compensatory damages. Against UBS, plaintiff alleged that UBS aided and abetted breach of the Merger Agreement and sought compensatory damages. He later re-characterized his claim as one of procurement of breach of contract.*fn8
UBS and Finish Line filed their answers in the Genesco Tennessee Action on November 15, 2007. They asserted that Genesco had suffered a Material Adverse Effect, that Genesco committed securities fraud, and that Genesco fraudulently induced Finish Line to enter into the Merger Agreement by failing to provide material information concerning Genesco's May performance and updated projections prior to the signing of the Merger Agreement.*fn9 UBS's Answer asserted a counterclaim for fraud.*fn10 The next day, Pennington, Genesco's CEO, rejected UBS's claim of fraud.
Chancellor Lyle, of the Tennessee Chancery Court, dismissed the Lasker State Action on November 30, 2007, ruling that, in light of the express disclaimer in the Merger Agreement of third-party beneficiaries, Genesco's shareholders ...