The opinion of the court was delivered by: Denise Cote, District Judge
This bankruptcy appeal arises out of the financial collapse of Lehman Brothers in 2008, when it was the fourth largest independent investment banking and financial services enterprise in the United States. Barclays Capital, Inc. ("Barclays") purchased certain divisions of Lehman Brothers within days of Lehman Brothers declaring bankruptcy on September 15, 2008. Bay Harbour Management, L.C., Bay Harbour Master, Ltd., Trophy Hunter Investments, Ltd., BHCO Master, Ltd., MSS Distressed & Opportunities 2, and Institutional Benchmarks (collectively, "Appellants") appeal from the order approving the sale of Lehman's North American registered broker-dealer subsidiary Lehman Brothers International ("LBI") to Barclays "free and clear of liens and other interests" ("Sale Order"),*fn1 entered on September 20 by United States Bankruptcy Judge for the Southern District of New York James Peck. For the following reasons, the Sale Order is affirmed.
The debtors in this action are Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. ("LBHI") and LB 745 LLC ("LB 745") (collectively, "Debtors"). LBHI is the parent corporation of the numerous subsidiaries and affiliates that constituted the global Lehman enterprise. Appellants are investment funds that maintained prime brokerage accounts with LBI and Lehman Brothers Inc. (Europe) ("LBIE"), Lehman's major European investment banking and capital markets subsidiary.*fn2
Appellants challenge the Sale Order that governs Barclays's purchase of LBI's investment banking and capital markets operations and supporting infrastructure, including the Lehman headquarters building in Manhattan. Appellants speculate that they may have been harmed by an alleged transfer of funds that may have benefited Barclays. On this basis, they seek to revise a crucial term of the sale.*fn3 They contend that the bankruptcy court's expedited review of the proposed sale was so grievously flawed that it (1) deprived Appellants of their due process right to learn whether Barclays was a good faith purchaser of LBI and (2) did not provide an adequate basis for the bankruptcy court itself to conclude that the sale to Barclays should be approved free and clear of liabilities due to Barclays's status as a good faith purchaser. Appellants assert these rights even though any claims they may have to any transferred funds are entirely derivative of LBIE's claims, and LBIE supported the sale. The chronology of Lehman's bankruptcy and the relevant proceedings before the bankruptcy court are summarized here.
Lehman's Collapse and Bankruptcy Filing
After over 150 years as a leader in financial services, Lehman crumbled during a period of extraordinary distress in the U.S. financial markets. As Lehman faced constraints on its ability to borrow, it was forced to tap its own cash reserves to fund transactions and had difficulty operating its businesses. Lehman tried to save itself, first by searching for a buyer and then by asking for federal bailout funds. Neither course of action worked. On September 15, 2008, LBHI filed for bankruptcy; LB 745 followed suit the next day.
By 7:00 a.m. on September 15, Barclays had already begun negotiating a purchase of LBI. The following day, Barclays and LBHI executed an Asset Purchase Agreement setting out the terms of Barclays's proposed purchase of LBI's investment banking and capital markets businesses and supporting infrastructure for approximately $1.7 billion. On September 17, the Debtors filed with the bankruptcy court a motion to schedule an expedited sale hearing.
The bankruptcy court held a hearing on September 17 to consider the sale procedures. Debtors emphasized that time was of the essence because LBI was a "wasting asset." While Appellants objected, the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"), the Federal Reserve Bank of New York ("Federal Reserve"),*fn4 and SIPC supported expedited review. At the hearing, LBHI's Chief Operating Officer Herbert McDade testified that if a sale were not approved by September 19, Lehman would likely disappear as a going concern. Although Fed. R. Bankr. P. 2002(a)(2) prescribes a twenty-day notice period, the bankruptcy court found cause to shorten the notice period to two days. The court found that the Debtors' estates would suffer "immediate and irreparable harm" if preliminary relief were not granted "on an expedited basis."
In approving the expedited schedule, the bankruptcy court explicitly considered due process issues. It heard arguments that financial markets participants had known for months that Lehman's assets were for sale. It also took judicial notice of the fact that interested parties and spectators filled two courtrooms and overflow rooms for the hearing: "there's no question that parties-in-interest and parties who are just plain interested know about today's hearing." Acknowledging that the proposed sale was "an absolutely extraordinary transaction with extraordinary importance to the capital markets globally," the bankruptcy court scheduled the sale hearing for two days later, September 19. Given the circumstances, the bankruptcy court said that emailing, faxing, and overnight mailing of the notice of the motion and sale hearing to a number of specified entities would constitute "good and sufficient notice." The parties do not dispute that such notice was effected.
The court allowed interested parties to file written objections or make oral objections to the proposed sale any time up to the conclusion of the sale hearing. Over the next two days Debtors' counsel made themselves available to answer questions about the proposed sale on a twenty-four hour basis. At 3:00 p.m. on September 18, they hosted a conference for the purpose of soliciting questions. At no time before the sale hearing did Appellants attempt to take any discovery from Barclays.
On the afternoon of Friday, September 19, interested parties and spectators again filled Judge Peck's courtroom and two overflow courtrooms for the sale hearing, which lasted until early the next morning. Debtors offered testimony about the sale's urgency. LBHI COO McDade testified that the "state of affairs at Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. and LBI is critical." If the sale did not close that day or over the weekend, according to McDade, "the effect on the broker-dealers business and on Lehman Holdings would be devastating."*fn5 Broker-dealer customers were threatening to ...