Appeal by defendants-appellants Bates and Hazzard, respectively the Sheriff of Schoharie County, New York, and the Administrator of the Schoharie County Jail, from a Decision and Order of the United States District Court for the Northern District of New York (Kahn, J.) denying their motion for summary judgment in an action for injunction and damages challenging a clothing exchange procedure for newly admitted jail inmates as a strip search violative of the Fourth Amendment when executed without reasonable suspicion, the appellants having asserted, inter alia, the defense of qualified immunity.
Decision and Order reversed and remanded with instructions to dismiss the action.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Miner, Circuit Judge
Before: JACOBS, Chief Judge, and MINER and SOTOMAYOR, Circuit Judges.
Judge Sotomayor dissents in a separate opinion.
Defendants-appellants John S. Bates Jr., Sheriff of Schoharie County, New York, and Lt. Jim Hazzard, Administrator of the Schoharie County Jail (together, the "defendants") appeal from a Decision and Order entered in the United States District Court for the Northern District of New York (Kahn, J.) denying their motion for summary judgment in an action brought against them by plaintiffs-appellees John Kelsey and Timothy Wright (together, the "plaintiffs"). Kelsey v. County of Schoharie, No. 1:04-CV-299, 2007 WL 603406 (N.D.N.Y. Feb. 21, 2007). The County of Schoharie is also named as a defendant in the action and joined in the motion. The plaintiffs seek an injunction and damages, claiming that the clothing exchange procedure for newly admitted inmates at the Schoharie County Jail constitutes a strip search violative of the Fourth Amendment when executed without reasonable suspicion. The defendants, sued in their official and individual capacities, base their motion for summary judgment, inter alia, on the defense of qualified immunity. The learned District Court, identifying a possible constitutional violation, found "material facts" in dispute and therefore rejected the defense of qualified immunity, with leave to reassert the defense "at the proper time." Kelsey, 2007 WL 603406, at *8. For the reasons that follow, we reverse the Decision and Order of the District Court and remand with instructions to dismiss the action.
I. The Clothing Exchange According To Defendants The Schoharie County Jail is operated by the Schoharie
County Sheriff's Department under the direction of Sheriff Bates. Day-to-day responsibility for the facility is vested in Lt. Hazzard as jail administrator. Bates and Hazzard have established and implemented procedures for the admission of male inmates to the facility and state that they have familiarized and trained all subordinate personnel at the facility in these procedures. Included in the intake procedure is a clothing exchange, whereby newly admitted inmates are issued distinctive facility clothing in exchange for their street clothes. This clothing exchange requirement is applied only to those male inmates who are not expected to make bail and therefore are to be confined in a housing unit at the jail. According to Sheriff Bates,
[t]he purposes of the clothing issue include, ensuring that each inmate has clean clothing free of infestation and to make sure that inmates are clearly identifiable and can be readily distinguished from visitors, members of the public and staff. For some inmates, the facility-issued clothing is better than the clothing and personal care items they have outside the facility and thus may positively impact their state of mind while being housed at the [jail]. The issuance of clothing is commonly referred to as the clothing exchange process.
Before the clothing exchange, a new inmate undergoes a booking procedure. He is first transported from a sally port to a holding area containing two holding cells next to a control room and booking room. In the holding area, the inmate is required to remove his coat (if any) and empty his pockets. Thereafter, he is subjected to a "pat frisk" and sometimes to a search by a hand-held metal detector, all while the inmate is fully clothed. According to the Sheriff, no other type of search is authorized during the intake period. The inmate then is placed in a holding cell within the holding area until the admitting corrections officer is ready to proceed with the booking process.
The inmate is next required to sit beside a window in the holding area. The booking room is on the other side of the window, through which the inmate is interviewed by the corrections officer. The officer enters the answers to his questions into a computer. The questions pertain to such matters as pedigree, medical information, scars and tattoos. Next, the corrections officer in charge of the booking procedure returns to the holding area, where he photographs and fingerprints the inmate. The inmate remains in his street clothes throughout the booking process.
It is only after the booking process is completed that the clothing exchange takes place for those inmates who are to be confined in one of the housing units. Although there is no written policy for the clothing exchange itself, the defendants insist that they have established a protocol for the clothing exchange and have instructed all jail personnel in the protocol as follows: A corrections officer produces in the holding area a mesh property bag into which the inmate is to place his clothes.
The officer instructs the inmate to stand on one side of a 42" x 48" masonry half-wall with the officer on the other side. The officer then lays out on the half-wall the jail uniform, a 48" long white towel, soap and other personal items. The inmate is then instructed to disrobe and place his street clothes into the mesh bag, which is held open by the officer on the other side of the half-wall. The inmate may use the towel for privacy as he disrobes preparatory to taking a required shower and dressing in the jail uniform.
While the inmate is showering, the officer takes the inmate's street clothes to a property room across the hallway from the holding area. There, the officer inspects the clothing for contraband, tags it, and sends it to the laundry room for washing. When he returns to the holding area, he escorts the newly clothed inmate to the appropriate housing unit. The protocol does not call for the officer to conduct a personal search or body inspection or to observe the inmate taking a shower or getting dressed. Although there is no written policy specifically addressed to the clothing exchange procedure, there is a written policy entitled "Inmate Processing." Within that policy is a provision for medical screening which provides: "A visual analysis of the inmate will be conducted throughout the admission process."
A written policy for strip searches and body cavity searches has been established at the jail under the title "Control of and Search for Contraband." It provides that "[a] 'strip/strip frisk search' shall not be routinely conducted." Such a search is allowed only "[w]here an officer has made a determination that there is reasonable suspicion to believe that the inmate should be searched" or "[w]here an officer has reasonable suspicion to believe an inmate is hiding contraband on his person and/or the inmate is in possession of contraband." The policy provides that "[w]hen inmates cooperate in the conduct of a strip/strip frisk search, the inmate's body will not be touched." Body cavity searches in the jail "[m]ay be authorized only in circumstances where there are compelling reasons to believe that the inmate(s) to be searched have secreted in a rectal/vaginal cavity contraband, the nature of which constitutes a clear threat to the safety and security of the facility and/or a threat to the safety and well being of any person." Sheriff Bates "do[es] not recall a single occasion when a [b]ody cavity search was conducted on an inmate during [his] tenure as Sheriff."
Sheriff Bates has put forth the proposition that "the clothing exchange procedure is not intended as a personal search of the inmate but rather a brief administrative process that precedes newly-admitted inmates['] transport to a housing unit." He has represented, "[u]pon information and belief," that "inmates are never instructed to squat, bend, turn, open their mouth, manipulate their body, or in any other manner expose themselves for a personal search or inspection" during the clothing exchange. Jail Administrator Hazzard avers that corrections officers at the jail have been trained to perform the prescribed clothing exchange procedure and that "[t]he clothing exchange is simply intended to get inmates into the jail uniform and secure their street clothing on their way to housing." However, he is aware of three occasions when the prescribed procedure was not followed: On one occasion, the corrections officer left the holding area and left the inmate alone to change out of his street clothes and into his prison clothes and to shower. On the other two occasions, the corrections officer caused the clothing exchange to take place in the holding cell instead of allowing the inmate the benefit of the privacy afforded by the masonry half-wall.
II. The Clothing Exchange According To Plaintiffs
Plaintiff Kelsey arrived at the Schoharie County Jail on October 16, 2002, having been transported there from the Albany County Jail, where he worked as a corrections officer. He had been arrested for a civil violation of the Family Court Act in connection with a child support matter. He underwent the booking procedure, including photographing and fingerprinting, before the required clothing exchange. He testified at his deposition that a corrections officer laid out the jail uniform on a bench in front of the half-wall. He proceeded to take off his street clothes in the open booking area, as directed, in order to put on the jail uniform. Kelsey asked the officer if he had to remove his underwear, and the officer replied: "Yes. Everything." The officer stood directly in front of Kelsey during the clothing exchange, and Kelsey placed his street clothes into a clear garbage bag at the request of the officer.
In his deposition, Kelsey stated that he asked the officer during the clothing exchange: "Do I have to do this here?" and that the officer answered: "Yes, you do." Kelsey testified that the officer's "eyes were looking up and down my body, so I assume he saw my genitals." Kelsey found the entire process "embarrassing" and "[h]umiliating." Kelsey testified that during the clothing exchange he was not prevented from turning around, from going behind the half-wall or from using the towel or the bag to obscure the officer's view of his body. He also stated that he was not required to lift his arms, to open his mouth, to expose his buttocks or to manipulate any part of his body. He did not indicate that he was touched by the officer in any way.
The Cobleskill Police Department brought plaintiff Wright to the Schoharie County Jail at about 3:30 a.m. on September 5, 2003, after Wright's arrest for driving while intoxicated. In his deposition, Wright testified that, following his interview at the jail, he was placed in a holding cell with the cell door open. An officer then brought him a jail uniform, a white towel, and a mesh bag for his street clothes. Wright sat on a bench in the cell and removed his street clothing, which he placed in the bag. He then proceeded to take a shower as directed, taking the towel with him. He returned to the holding cell with the towel, got dressed in the jail uniform and was escorted to a housing unit. According to Wright, a corrections officer stood in front of him as he removed his street clothes (a process that took one minute) and placed them in the mesh bag provided. When asked in what direction he was facing as he undressed, Wright testified: "At somewhat of an angle to [the officer], but I can't recall 100 percent which way I was facing. It was like sort of facing towards the officer." Wright also testified that when he dressed in the holding cell after the shower, no one was present in the holding area. In response to a question relating to the mental and emotional stress allegedly suffered, Wright described his experience as "rather unpleasant" and stated: "[I]t was, you know, just a rather humiliating kind of - shameful kind of, just being naked in front of at least one other individual and possibly in the view of others."
Plaintiff Wright's description of the deviations from the clothing exchange protocol is consistent with the deposition testimony of Joseph Kenyon, a corrections officer employed at the Schoharie County Jail. According to Officer Kenyon, inmates are required to stand in front of him and face him during the entire clothing exchange. He watches the inmates as they remove their clothing, the disrobing ...