The opinion of the court was delivered by: David R. Homer U.S. Magistrate Judge
REPORT-RECOMMENDATION AND ORDER
Presently pending are the motions of defendants Albany County Board of Elections, County of Albany, James Frezzell, Stephanie Galka, Matthew Galka, and Matthew Clyne (collectively "Board of Elections defendants") and defendant Wanda Willingham ("Willingham") for dismissal of the complaint and other sanctions pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. P. 37 for plaintiffs' various alleged discovery failures and, in particular, the failure to attend depositions. Docket Nos. 86, 106. The other defendants have joined or are deemed to have joined the motions. See Docket Nos. 95, 102. Plaintiffs have filed no opposition to the motions. For the reasons which follow, it is recommended that defendants' motions be granted in part and denied in part.*fn1
I. Plaintiffs' Failure to Respond to the Motions
Defendants' motions were filed on June 17 and September 30, 2009. Docket Nos. 86, 106. Any response from any plaintiff was required to be filed no later than November 2, 2009. Docket No. 106. No plaintiff filed a response prior to that date. On January 5, 2010, plaintiff pro se Clifton M. Dixon ("Dixon") requested and received an extension of fourteen days to file a response. Docket No. 111; Text Order dated 1/6/10. Still, no response has ever been filed by any plaintiff.
Relief "should not be entered by default against a pro se plaintiff who has not been given any notice that failure to respond will be deemed a default." Champion v. Artuz, 76 F.3d 483, 486 (2d Cir. 1996). The moving defendants provided such notice in their Notices of Motion here. Docket No. 86, 106. Despite these notices, all plaintiffs failed to respond. "The fact that there has been no response . . . does not . . . mean that the motion is to be granted automatically." Champion, 76 F.3d at 436. Even in the absence of a response, a defendant is entitled to relief only if the material facts demonstrate his or her entitlement to the relief sought as a matter of law. Id.
Because all plaintiffs have failed to respond to raise any question of material fact, the facts as set forth in defendants' supporting affirmations (Docket Nos. 86-1, 106-2) are accepted as true. Adirondack Cycle & Marine, Inc. v. Am. Honda Motor Co., No. 00-CV-1619, 2002 WL 449757, at *1 (N.D.N.Y. Mar. 18, 2002) (McAvoy, J.) (citing Lopez v. Reynolds, 998 F. Supp. 252, 256 (W.D.N.Y. 1997)); see also N.D.N.Y.L.R. 7.1(a)(3) ("The Court shall deem admitted any facts set forth . . . that the opposing party does not specifically controvert.") (emphasis in original). Accordingly, the facts asserted by the moving defendants in their supporting affirmations will be accepted as true for purposes of their motions.
Dixon was a candidate for Albany County legislator for the Fourth District in 2007 and sought the nominations of the Democratic and Independence Parties in the September primary. Compl. (Docket No. 1) at ¶ 3. Plaintiff Justus4us is a community organization which, inter alia, encourages eligible citizens in Albany to register and to vote. Id. at ¶ 4.
Dixon serves as its President. Id. at ¶ 3. Plaintiffs pro se Louis W. Brown ("Brown"), Frances Poole ("Poole", and Cleo B. Carter ("Carter") all reside in the Fourth District and are registered to vote in the Democratic Party. Compl. at ¶¶ 5, 7, 8.*fn2 Defendants Virginia Maffia Tobler and Jaqueline E. Jones were candidates for the Democratic nomination in the Fourth District with Dixon and the remaining defendants allegedly performed various functions during the September 2007 primary. Id. at ¶¶ 9-20. Dixon lost the primary for the Democratic nomination to Maffia Tobler and for the Independence Party to another individual. Id. at ¶¶ 130-31. This action followed.
Plaintiffs filed their complaint on May 12, 2008 alleging various constitutional defects in the primary election process in violation of the Civil Rights Act of 1965, 42 U.S.C. § 1981 et seq. Compl. On September 15, 2008, a conference was held with the Court pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. P. 16, a schedule was set for completion of the case, and a Uniform Pretrial Scheduling Order incorporating that schedule was entered. Docket No. 47. Discovery commenced and on January 26, 2009, the Board of Elections defendants served all individual plaintiffs with notices to take their oral depositions on February 24, 2009. Neff Affirm. (Docket No. 86-1) at ¶¶ 5-7 & Ex. D. The depositions were confirmed by a letter to all parties dated February 20, 2009. Id. at ¶ 8 & Ex. E. No plaintiff appeared for the depositions and no plaintiff contacted defendants prior thereto. Id. at ¶ 9.
At defendants' request, a conference was held with the Court on March 12, 2009 following which an order was entered compelling plaintiffs Brown, Poole, and Carter to appear for oral deposition on June 1, 2009 at the federal courthouse in Albany. Docket No. 82. The order explicitly advised these plaintiffs that if they again failed to appear for the depositions, the Court could impose sanctions upon them and that the sanctions could include dismissal of their claims. Id. The order was mailed to all pro se plaintiffs. Docket entry dated 3/13/09. Defense counsel appeared at the scheduled place and time for the depositions with a retained stenographer, but plaintiffs Brown, Poole, and Carter all failed to appear and without prior notice to any defendant. Neff Affirm. at ¶¶ 14-16, 19 & Ex. I; Zegarelli Affirm. (Docket No. 106-2) at ¶ 15.
Defendants seek sanctions, including dismissal of the complaint, against all plaintiffs pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. P. 37(b) and (d). Rule 37(b) authorizes a range of sanctions against any party who is found to have disobeyed a court order compelling discovery, including an order to appear for a deposition. Rule 37(d) authorizes the same range of sanctions against a party for failing to attend his or her deposition. The range of sanction authorized by both provisions includes deeming facts admitted, precluding evidence, striking pleadings, and dismissing the action. Fed. R. Civ. P. 37(b)(2)(A). It also includes the imposition of costs, including attorney's fees, incurred by the moving party. Fed. R. Civ. P. ...