The opinion of the court was delivered by: William M. Skretny Chief Judge United States District Court
Plaintiff Daniel Fellner commenced this action by filing a Complaint in this Court, asserting claims under federal law and the laws of New York and Florida against Defendants Kerry and Nancy Cameron ("Camerons"), Investment Brokers of SW Florida, Inc. ("IBSWF"), US Bank National Association ("USBNA"), Riverside Bank of the Gulf Coast ("RBGC"),*fn1 Security National Mortgage Company of Utah ("SNMC"), Countrywide Home Loans Servicing, LP ("CHLS"), Greenpoint Mortgage Funding, Inc. ("GMFI"), and America's Servicing Company ("ASC") relating to Plaintiff's purchase of real property located in Florida. All Defendants have moved to dismiss as follows: USBNA and ASC (Docket No. 8), SNMC (Docket No. 12), CHLS (Docket No. 33), the Camerons and IBSWF (Docket No. 40). Alternatively, Defendant SNMC has moved to transfer the case to the Southern District of Florida. (Docket No. 12.) The Camerons and IBSWF have moved to transfer the case to the Middle District of Florida. (Docket No. 40.) As part of his response to SNMC's motion (Docket No. 38) and response to the Camerons & IBSWF's motion (Docket No. 68), Plaintiff has cross-moved for leave to file an amended complaint.
For the reasons discussed below, this Court finds that transfer to the United States District Court for the Middle District of Florida is warranted. Accordingly, this Court will not address Defendants' requests for dispositive relief, or Plaintiff's motions for leave to amend.
The following facts, alleged in the complaint, are assumed true for purposes of the instant motion.
Defendants Kerry and Nancy Cameron, both of whom are Florida residents, are licensed realtors and real estate brokers. (Docket No. 1, Compl. ¶¶ 2-3.) As such, they assist clients in selling and investing in real estate, procuring mortgages, and managing mortgaged and/or purchased properties. (Id. ¶ 3.) The Camerons conducted business through IBSWF, a business incorporated in Florida that specializes in selling and investing in real estate. (Id. ¶ 5.)
Between the years 1992 and 2005, Plaintiff, a New York State resident, who has no prior real estate experience, entered into several real estate investments with the Camerons and IBSWF. (Id. ¶¶ 1, 9, 11.) Under the arrangement, the Camerons and IBSWF would identify real estate properties for purchase by Plaintiff, arrange funding for the purchase, prepare the necessary paperwork, and secure tenants to live at the properties on a "rent-to-own" basis. (Id. ¶ 9.) The Camerons would send paperwork related to the real estate investments to Plaintiff for his signature, with instructions to sign the documents and immediately return the signed copies to them in Florida. (Id. ¶ 10.) The Camerons and IBSWF also managed the properties, made repairs, and collected rental income from the tenants. (Id. ¶¶ 9, 56.)
The Camerons always purchased the properties on Plaintiff's "credit." (Id. ¶ 17.) Although the properties had a "cash-down requirement," Plaintiff never made any cash payments on the properties because the Camerons informed him that this requirement was "covered by  promissory notes." (Id. ¶ 17.) Plaintiff, however, alleges that he never saw any such notes. (Id. ¶ 17.)*fn2
Between February 1, 2007 and December 1, 2007, Plaintiff purchased the five properties, at issue here, through the Camerons and IBSWF. (Id. ¶¶ 7, 20.) All five properties are located in Florida. (Id. ¶¶ 7, 20.) Plaintiff purchased these properties in the same manner in which he purchased the previous properties. (Id. ¶ 20.) Specifically, the Camerons and IBSWF prepared the necessary paperwork, obtained the mortgages on Plaintiff's behalf, and stated that the cash down requirement was covered by a promissory note. (Id. ¶¶ 17, 20.) Plaintiff, however, alleges that he "never saw" the promissory note covering these properties. (Id. ¶ 20.) The mortgages on the properties are held by Defendants USBNA, RBGC, SNMC, CHLS, and GMFI. (Id. ¶¶ 7, 20.)
Plaintiff relied on Defendants' representations and expertise in purchasing the properties but the purchase prices were, in fact, overinflated and the amount of the mortgages exceeded the actual value of the properties. (Id. ¶¶ 22-23.) Plaintiff commenced this suit asserting two claims against all Defendants for "fraudulent overvaluation of real property" and "fraudulent business dealings and undisclosed conflicts of interest" in violation of unspecified Federal, New York State, and Florida State laws. (Id., Introduction, ¶¶ 24-39.) His third, fourth, and fifth claims, which pertain to the Camerons and IBSWF only, allege: (1) breach of fiduciary duty; (2) fraudulent representation, predatory lending, and targeting of individuals with bad credit; and (3) fraudulent management of properties by skimming money from rental income. (Id., Introduction, ¶¶ 40-60.) These claims appear to be predicated on Florida law. (Docket No. 1, ¶ 13.) Thereafter, Defendants filed the instant motions to dismiss and/or transfer.
A. Defendants' Motions to Transfer
A district court may transfer a civil action to any other district where the case might have been brought if the transfer serves "the convenience of the parties and witnesses, [and is] in the interest of justice." 28 U.S.C. § 1404(a). The primary goal of section 1404(a) is to protect litigants, witnesses, and the public against unnecessary inconvenience and expense. Continental Grain Co v. Barge FBL-585, 364 U.S. 19, 27, 80 S.Ct. 1470, 4 L.Ed.2d 1540 (1960).
In determining whether the interests of justice and convenience support transfer, district courts evaluate nine factors. Those factors include: (1) the convenience of witnesses; (2) the convenience of parties; (3) the location of the relevant documents and the relative ease of access to sources of proof; (4) the locus of the operative facts; (5) the availability of process to compel the attendance of unwilling witnesses; (6) the relative financial means of the parties; (7) the comparative familiarity of each district with the governing law; (8) the weight afforded plaintiff's choice of ...