The opinion of the court was delivered by: Sidney H. Stein, U.S. District Judge
The parties to this action-TradeComet.com LLC and Google, Inc.-own and operate competing internet search engines. TradeComet purchased advertising on Google's website through Google's AdWords program and now alleges that Google attempted to reduce traffic at TradeComet's own website both by increasing the cost of TradeComet's advertising and by entering into exclusive agreements with other websites, all allegedly in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act. Google has now moved to dismiss the complaint pursuant to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 12(b)(1) and 12(b)(3) for improper venue based on a forum selection clause in the parties' advertising contracts. Because TradeComet's claims fall within the scope of the relevant forum selection clause that requires that this action be brought in California, and because enforcing that clause would be neither unreasonable nor unjust, Google's motion to dismiss is granted.
The following facts are taken from the complaint; the declarations of Heather Wilburn, Daniel J. Howley, and Sara Ciarelli Walsh; and the attachments thereto, and are presumed to be true for purposes of this motion.
A. The Advertising Relationship between TradeComet and Google
TradeComet operates the website SourceTool.com, which attracts "highly-valued search traffic of businesses seeking to buy or sell products and service to other businesses," and provides what is commonly referred to as a "B2B" (for "business to business") directory. (Compl. ¶ 4.) TradeComet alleges that since its start in 2005, its website has experienced significant growth, in part based on the search traffic and advertising revenue that it generated as a result of placing advertisements for its website on Google's competing website. (Id. ¶¶ 6, 41-44.)
Dan Savage, the founder of TradeComet, met with Google representatives in December 2005 and May 2006 to discuss use of Google's AdWords advertising program to maximize TradeComet's revenue.*fn1 TradeComet alleges that following the May 2006 meeting, Google "drastically" increased the minimum price of the keywords that SourceTool.com had purchased through the AdWords program, thus making those keywords effectively unavailable to TradeComet and depriving its website-SourceTool.com-of traffic that the use of those keywords would drive to the SourceTool.com website. This in turn caused a drop in the revenue that TradeComet derived from advertisements on its website. (Id. ¶¶ 45-48.) Google claims that it increased the price of the relevant keywords due to its use of an algorithm that adjusts advertising prices to reflect the quality of the page to which the advertisement linked. (Id. ¶¶ 49-52.) TradeComet contends that Google dominates the market for online search, and that Google's effective exclusion of SourceTool.com from its AdWords program starved SourceTool.com of the traffic it needed to grow, in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act. (Id. ¶¶ 3, 21-22, 54-55.)
TradeComet also alleges that Google has entered into exclusive agreements with other popular websites and with rival search engines in a further effort to consolidate online search at Google.com and exclude other search engines-such as SourceTool.com-from the relevant market, also allegedly violating the Sherman Antitrust Act. (Id. ¶¶ 68-74, 100-01.)
B. The Relevant Forum Selection Clauses
Users of Google's AdWords program must accept a set of terms and conditions in order to activate an AdWords account and they must subsequently accept any additional terms and conditions that Google later implements if the user wants to continue using its existing AdWords account. (Dep. of Heather Wilburn dated April 13, 2009 ("Wilburn Dep.") at 13:9-11, 34:21-35:6, Ex. B to Dec. of Sara Ciarelli Walsh dated April 22, 2009 ("Walsh Dec.").) The terms and conditions that went into effect on April 19, 2005 and May 23, 2006 include provisions stating that "[t]he Agreement must be construed as if both parties jointly wrote it, governed by California law except for its conflicts of laws principles and adjudicated in Santa Clara County, California." (Google Inc. AdWords Program Terms dated April 19, 2005 (the "April 2005 Agreement") ¶ 7, Ex. 2 to Dec. of Daniel J. Howley dated April 15, 2009 ("Howley Dec."); Google Inc. AdWords Program Terms dated May 23, 2006 (the "May 2006 Agreement") ¶ 9, Ex. 3 to Howley Dec.) They also include identical language directing that "Google may modify the [AdWords] Program or these Terms at any time without liability and your use of the Program after notice that Terms have changed indicates acceptance of the Terms." (April 2005 Agreement ¶ 2; May 2006 Agreement ¶ 2.)
Effective August 22, 2006, Google issued a revised set of terms and conditions that contains the same language regarding modifications to the terms along with a broader forum selection clause as follows:
THE AGREEMENT MUST BE CONSTRUED AS IF BOTH PARTIES JOINTLY WROTE IT AND GOVERNED BY CALIFORNIA LAW EXCEPT FOR ITS CONFLICTS OF LAWS PRINCIPLES. ALL CLAIMS ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS AGREEMENT OR THE GOOGLE PROGRAM(S) SHALL BE LITIGATED EXCLUSIVELY IN THE FEDERAL OR STATE COURTS OF SANTA CLARA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA, USA, AND GOOGLE AND CUSTOMER CONSENT TO PERSONAL JURISDICTION IN THOSE COURTS. (Google Inc. Advertising Program Terms dated August 22, 2006 (the "August 2006 Agreement") ¶ 9, Ex. 1 to Howley Dec. (capitalization in original).) Representatives for TradeComet have accepted those terms and conditions. (See Dec. of Heather Wilburn dated March 30, 2009 ("Wilburn Dec.") ¶¶ 6-7; Ex. D-F to Walsh Dec.)
As noted, Google has now moved to dismiss the complaint on the grounds that the August 2006 forum selection clause requires TradeComet to bring its claims in a court located in Santa Clara County, California, not in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York. TradeComet, on the other hand, contends that the forum selection clause contained in the April 2005 and May 2006 Agreements-not the August 2006 Agreement-governs because it was in effect at the time of Google's alleged violations of the Sherman Antitrust Act. Because Google is correct that the August 2006 forum selection clause governs and because TradeComet's claims "relat[e] to . . . the Google Program(s)," Google's motion to dismiss the complaint is granted.*fn2
There is a split of authority in the Second Circuit regarding the appropriate procedural mechanism by which to enforce a forum selection clause. The proper vehicle is a motion to dismiss the complaint for either (1) lack of subject matter jurisdiction pursuant to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 12(b)(1), see AVC Nederland B.V. v. Atrium Inv. Partnership, 740 F.2d 148, 152 (2d Cir. 1984); (2) improper venue pursuant to Rule 12(b)(3), see Phillips v. Audio Active Ltd., 494 F.3d 378, 382 (2d Cir. 2007); or (3) failure to state a claim pursuant to Rule 12(b)(6), see Evolution Online Sys., Inc. v. Koninklijke PTT Nederland N.V., 145 F.3d 505, 508 n.6 (2d Cir. 1998). But see New Moon Shipping Co. v. MAN B & W Diesel AG, 121 F.3d 24, 29 (2d Cir. ...