The opinion of the court was delivered by: Laura Taylor Swain, United Statesdistrictjudge
This Document Relates to All Actions
MEMORANDUM OPINION AND ORDER
Two putative class actions have been consolidated under the above caption. Non-named Plaintiff Public Employees' Retirement System of Mississippi ("PERS") filed suit in California state court in December 2008, asserting securities fraud claims relating to the marketing and sale of mortgage-backed security ("MBS") pass-through certificates issued by Morgan Stanley Capital I Incorporated ("MSCII") and several Morgan Stanley Mortgage Loan Trusts. PERS had purchased certificates from one such trust, Morgan Stanley Mortgage Loan Trust 2006-14SL ("2006-14SL"). PERS' action was subsequently removed to the United States District Court for the Central District of California, and then transferred to this Court in March 2009. Following the publication of notice of the action in accordance with the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, 15 U.S.C. § 77z-1(a)(3)(A)(I),*fn1 West Virginia Investment Management Board ("WVIMB"), which had commenced a separate action against Defendants*fn2 in this District on May 7, 2009, was appointed Lead Plaintiff and its case was consolidated with PERS' action. (Docket Entry No. 32.) WVIMB also asserts claims relating to MBS certificates issued by MSCII and several Morgan Stanley Mortgage Loan Trusts. Like PERS, WVIMB had purchased certificates from one such trust, Morgan Stanley Mortgage Loan Trust 2007-11AR ("2007-11AR"). (CAC ¶ 9.) The trusts that issued PERS' 2006-14SL certificates and WVIMB's 2007-11AR certificates were related in that they shared a common shelf registration statement. A separate prospectus supplement detailing information specific to the particular trust was, however, issued with respect to certificate offerings from each of the trusts. On September 15, 2009, Lead Plaintiff WVIMB filed the CAC, in which it asserts claims concerning these two certificates, although it only identifies WVIMB as named Plaintiff. The CAC also asserts claims regarding MBS certificates issued by twenty-nine other Morgan Stanley Mortgage Loan Trusts.*fn3
The additional trust certificates were based on the same shelf registration used for 2006-14SL and 2007-11AR; separate prospectus supplements were issued for each of the trusts. The Court has jurisdiction of the action pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 1331.
Defendants now move to dismiss the CAC, arguing (1) that Lead Plaintiff WVIMB lacks standing to prosecute claims concerning certificates other than the one it purchased, 2007-11AR, such that the Court lacks subject matter jurisdiction of those additional claims; and (2) that the CAC fails to state claims upon which relief may be granted because Lead Plaintiff's claims are untimely and because the CAC is legally and factually insufficient in a number of respects. For the following reasons, Defendants' motion is granted in part, and Lead Plaintiff is granted leave to amend the CAC.
The following facts are taken from the CAC, the documents incorporated by reference therein, and other documents of which the Court may take judicial notice. Plaintiff's factual allegations are taken as true for purposes of this motion practice.
In a mortgage securitization, mortgage lenders-also known as originators-sell mortgages to third-party financial institutions. (CAC ¶ 36.) The financial institutions then securitize the mortgages by pooling them together, depositing them in a trust, and selling interests in the trusts to investors in the form of MBS. (Id.¶¶ 37, 41.) Servicers of the loans receive the principal and interest payments on the mortgages from the borrowers, and convey those payments to the holders of the MBS, minus a service fee. (Id. ¶ 43.)
In this case, various Morgan Stanley entities acquired mortgages from several originators-including American Home Mortgage Corporation (id. ¶ 78); Fifth Third Mortgage Company (id.¶ 93); First National Bank of Nevada (id. ¶ 97); GreenPoint Mortgage Funding, Incorporated (id. ¶ 108); and Morgan Stanley Credit Corporation (id. ¶ 116). MSCII then deposited the mortgages in a number of trusts. (Id. ¶ 11). The trust holdings generally consisted of residential mortgages including conventional, adjustable-rate, hybrid adjustable-rate, and negative amortization loans. (Id.¶ 3.) On December 23, 2005, MSCII filed a shelf registration statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") for the purpose of issuing MBS through the various trusts, and filed amendments to the shelf registration on February 17, 2006 and March 14, 2006. (Id. ¶ 3.) MSCII filed separate prospectus supplements for each trust with the SEC. (Id.¶ 20.) From December 2005 to January 2007, MSCII and each individual trust issued different tranches of MBS. The tranches were differentiated based on several factors, including credit risks associated with the underlying mortgages and varying priority rights to payment from the mortgages. (Id. 3 n.1, ¶¶ 1, 2, 38, 42.) WVIMB purchased certificates of 2007-11AR on June 6, 2007, and again on November 11, 2007. (Id.¶ 9.) PERS purchased certificates of 2006-14SL on August 18, 2007. (See Docket Entry No. 1, Part 1 ("PERS Compl.") at 24 ¶ 14.) As noted above, the CAC asserts claims with respect to both of these certificates, as well as with respect to certificates issued by twenty-nine other Morgan Stanley Mortgage Loan Trusts.
WVIMB alleges that the registration statement and prospectus supplements that accompanied the certificates issued by MSCII and each of the thirty-one trusts contained materially false and misleading statements regarding (1) the underwriting standards used to evaluate the credit profiles of the mortgage borrowers, (2) the standards used to appraise the value of the underlying mortgaged properties and the adequacy of the properties as security for the mortgages, (3) the loan-to-value ratios*fn4 of the underlying mortgages, and (4) the risk associated with the mortgages due to inadequate evaluations by rating agencies. (CAC ¶ 5.) In support of these allegations, WVIMB cites generalized language in the shelf registration document (See CAC ¶ 56, 66; Egler Decl. Ex. A), specific disclosures concerning loan originators, underwriting and appraisal policies and rating information in prospectus supplements relating to particular trusts, and allegations concerning the actual practices of the particular originators and ratings agencies referred to in the prospectus supplements (See, e.g., CAC ¶¶ 79-92, 123-152; Decl. James P. Rouhandeh Supp. Defs.' Mot. Dismiss Consol. Am. Compl. ("Rouhandeh Decl.") Ex. AA at S-27, 47-48).
WVIMB alleges that, "[a]t the time of their purchases of the Certificates, Plaintiff and other members of the Class were without knowledge of the facts concerning the wrongful conduct alleged herein and could not reasonably have discovered these facts prior to mid-2008." (CAC ¶ 164.) In support of the statute of limitations aspect of its motion, Defendant has proffered disclosure documents demonstrating that the proportion of the mortgages underlying 2007-11AR that were sixty days or more delinquent climbed from almost 9% in October 2007, to more than 13% in December 2007, and to more than 20% in March 2008. (See Rouhandeh Decl. Exs. F-K.) Plaintiff proffers that S&P began downgrading 2007-11AR in December 2007, and Moody's followed suit in January 2008. (See Decl. Thomas E. Egler Supp. Lead Pl.'s Mem. Law Opp'n Defs.' Mot. Dismiss Consol. Am. Compl. ("Egler Decl.") Ex. B.) According to WVIMB, by the middle of 2008 the cumulative impact of these developments reached a critical mass and alerted it to misrepresentations by Defendants concerning the quality of the underlying mortgages. (CAC ¶ 6.)
WVIMB asserts claims for violations of the Securities Act of 1933 (the "Securities Act"), Section 11, 15 U.S.C. § 77k ("Section 11"), Section 12(a)(2), 15 U.S.C. § 77l(a)(2) ("Section 12(a)(2)"), and Section 15, 15 U.S.C. § 77o ("Section 15").
Sections 11, 12(a)(2), and 15 of the Securities Act impose civil liability on certain persons when a registered securities offering contains material misstatements or omissions. 15 U.S.C. §§ 77k, 77l(a)(2); 77o; In re Morgan Stanley Info. Fund Sec. Litig., 592 F.3d 347, 358 (2d Cir. 2010). Section 11 provides a cause of action regarding registration statements, and Section 12(a)(2) provides a cause of action regarding prospectuses and oral communications. 15 U.S.C. §§ 77k, 77l(a)(2); see also In re Morgan Stanley, 592 F.3d at 358-59. Section 15 provides a cause of action against "[e]very person who . . . controls any person liable under [Sections 11 or 12(a)(2)] of this title." 15 U.S.C. § 77o. A claim under Section 15, therefore, can only ...