The opinion of the court was delivered by: Laura Taylor Swain, United States District Judge
These seven related appeals are taken from orders and a Memorandum Decision entered on October 7, 2009, in the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York (Peck, B.J.) denying a motion to remand one of three related adversary proceedings, granting the debtors' motion to intervene in that adversary proceeding and granting motions to remand the other two adversary proceedings (collectively the "Bankruptcy Court Decision"). All three adversary proceedings were originally commenced in the Supreme Court for the State of New York, New York County, removed pursuant to 28 U.S.C. §1452 to this Court and referred to the Bankruptcy Court pursuant to 28 U.S.C. §157 and this Court's July 10, 1984, standing Order of Reference for bankruptcy cases and proceedings, in connection with the pending jointly administered Chapter 11 cases of Extended Stay Inc. and its affiliates (collectively, "Extended Stay" or "Debtors"). The Court has jurisdiction of these appeals pursuant to 28 U.S.C. §158(a)(1), and has reviewed thoroughly the parties' extensive submissions. Familiarity with those submissions and with the designated portions of the Bankruptcy Court record is presumed. For the reasons that follow, the Bankruptcy Court Decision is affirmed.
BACKGROUND AND PROCEDURAL HISTORY
In June 2007, Extended Stay, the largest owner/operator of mid-priced hotels in the United States, was acquired by an investor consortium led by Appellant David Lichtenstein ("Lichtenstein") and his portfolio company Appellant Lightstone Holdings ("Lightstone"). The acquisition was financed through loans totaling approximately $7.4 billion, comprising a mortgage loan of approximately $4.1 billion and ten tranches, denominated A through J, of junior Mezzanine Loans totaling approximately $3.3 billion. The mortgage loan was sold to a trust formed pursuant to a Trust and Servicing Agreement (the "Mortgage Trust" and the "TSA," respectively). The Mortgage Trust issued 18 principal classes of certificates representing beneficial interests in the trust and the mortgage loan collateral ("Certificates"), each with a different level of priority on which its entitlement to distributions from the Mortgage Trust is based. Appellant Five Mile Capital II SPE ESH LLC ("Five Mile Capital" or "Five Mile") and appellees Cerberus Capital Management, L.P. ("Cerberus"), and Centerbridge Partners, L.P. ("Centerbridge") are among the Certificate holders. Cerberus and Centerbridge hold Certificates from classes senior to those held by Five Mile Capital.
Certain of the Mezzanine Loans were securitized into debt corresponding to the various tranches. Appellee Line Trust Corporation LTD ("Line Trust") purchased debt corresponding to tranche G, and Appellee Bank of America, N.A., which was also one of the original Mezzanine lenders, purchased debt corresponding to tranches A through E.
The financing arrangements included measures designed to minimize the potential for a bankruptcy filing on the part of Extended Stay. Among these measures, and at issue in the Bank of America and Line Trust adversary proceedings, were provisions under which the Mortgage and Mezzanine Loans were non-recourse except upon the occurrence of an event of default. Guarantees delivered by Lichtenstein, Lightstone and certain others of up to $100 million of the debt (sometimes referred to by the parties as "non-recourse carve-out guarantees") were similarly conditioned upon the occurrence of an event of default. Among the triggering events of default, or "bad boy" occurrences, was the filing of a voluntary bankruptcy petition by Extended Stay. The parties sometimes refer to these liabilities arising upon the occurrence of an event of default as "springing" liabilities. The guarantees define the guarantors' joint and several liability by reference to the Debtors' liability under the recourse provisions of the financing instruments -- in other words, the guarantors' obligation is to satisfy a liability of the Debtors that comes into existence upon, inter alia, a bankruptcy filing. The financing documents, which include the guarantees and an Intercreditor Agreement, also provide for guarantor liability notwithstanding unenforceability of the recourse provisions against the Debtors, waiver of any claim for indemnity of the guarantors by the Debtors in connection with the guarantees, and indemnity of the lenders for expenses in connection with enforcement of the guarantees.
Extended Stay encountered financial difficulties and engaged in negotiations with certain groups of its lenders, including Certificate holders Cerberus and Centerbridge, and Mezzanine debt holder Line Trust. Consummation of an out-of-court restructuring arrangement with certain senior Mezzanine debt holders was thwarted by state court litigation commenced by Line Trust, which had been party to a competing restructuring proposal and, on June 13, 2009, the Debtors filed voluntary petitions pursuant to Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code.*fn1 The Debtors' bankruptcy petitions were accompanied by a term sheet outlining a potential plan of reorganization pursuant to which certain of the Certificate holders' positions would improve significantly; junior Certificate holders like Five Mile would be disadvantaged; Bank of America in its Mezzanine debt holder capacity, Line Trust, and their fellow junior Mezzanine debt holders would be out of the money; and Lichtenstein and Lightstone would be indemnified by the Debtors for liabilities they incur under the guarantees as well as for certain litigation expenses relating to the guarantees. The three cases that are the subjects of these appeals were commenced shortly thereafter in state court, removed to this Court, and referred to the Bankruptcy Court as adversary proceedings. Following the interposition of motions to remand the proceedings, and motions by Extended Stay to intervene in each of the adversary proceedings, the Bankruptcy Court held hearings on September 10 and September 22, 2009, and, on October 7, 2009, issued the orders and Memorandum Decision that are appealed from here.
Appellants challenge the Bankruptcy Court's conclusions as to whether there is federal court jurisdiction of the claims asserted in the three adversary proceedings that were initiated in state court. All of plaintiffs' claims in those cases were pleaded as state contract or tort causes of action; the cases were removed pursuant to notices of removal invoking the Court's bankruptcy jurisdiction under 28 U.S.C. §1334(b).
On appeal, legal determinations of the bankruptcy court are reviewed de novo. the bankruptcy court's findings of fact will not be set aside unless they are clearly erroneous. Ames Dep't Stores, Inc. v. ASM Capital, LP, 582 F.3d 422, 427 (2d Cir. 2009), cert. denied, ___ U.S. ____, 130 S.Ct. 1527 (2010); Fed. R. Bankr. P. 8013.
28 U.S.C. section 1334 provides in pertinent part that district courts have original but not exclusive jurisdiction of "all civil proceedings arising under title 11 [(the Bankruptcy Code)], or arising in or related to cases under title 11." 28 U.S.C.A. §1334(b) (West 2006). Cases "arising under" title 11 or "arising in" a title 11 case are "core" proceedings that may be heard and determined by bankruptcy courts, subject to appellate review by the district courts. Such core proceedings include "matters concerning the administration of the estate" and plan confirmations. 28 U.S.C.A. §157(b)(2)(A), (L) (West 2006). The bankruptcy court has jurisdiction only to hear and (unless the parties consent to determination of the matters by the bankruptcy court) propose findings of fact and conclusions of law to the district court with respect to matters that are merely "related to" title 11 bankruptcy cases. 28 U.S.C.A. §157(c)(1) (West 2006). The determination as to whether a matter is "related to" a pending bankruptcy case turns on "whether its outcome might have ...