On appeal, intervenor-appellant argues that the district court erred by approving the settlement of the shareholders' derivative litigation brought on behalf of DHB Industries, Inc. against a number of its former officers and directors because the settlement agreement impermissibly releases and indemnifies DHB's former Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer against all liability arising under § 304 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, 15 U.S.C. § 7243. We agree.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Hall, Circuit Judge
Before: HALL, LIVINGSTON, and CHIN,*fn1 Circuit Judges.
On appeal, intervenor-appellant argues principally that the district court erred by approving the settlement of the shareholders' derivative litigation brought on behalf of DHB Industries, Inc. against a number of its former officers and directors because the settlement agreement impermissibly releases and indemnifies DHB's former Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer against all liability arising under § 304 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, 15 U.S.C. § 7243.*fn2 We agree.
We recount only such facts as are necessary to explain our decision. In the fall of 2005, DHB Industries, Inc.'s ("DHB") stock price plummeted following revelations that the body armor manufactured by the company contained an inferior material prone to rapid deterioration. Numerous derivative and class action lawsuits were subsequently filed against DHB and a number of its former officers and directors. In January 2006, the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York (Seybert, J.) consolidated the derivative actions and class actions and appointed derivative counsel and class counsel. The settlement of the consolidated derivative action ("the Settlement") is the subject of this appeal, though the Settlement is a joint settlement that settled both the consolidated derivative action and the consolidated class action.
In the district court, intervenor-appellant D. David Cohen and the Department of Justice Civil Litigation Division ("DOJ"), in consultation with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"), (DOJ and SEC collectively, the "United States"), presented objections to the Settlement. As relevant to our decision, Cohen and the United States objected to the provisions in which DHB agreed to release David H. Brooks, DHB's former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer ("CEO"), and Dawn M. Schlegel, DHB's former Chief Financial Officer ("CFO"), from any liability under § 304 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act ("SOX"), 15 U.S.C. § 7243*fn3 ("§ 304"), and to indemnify them against any liability they may incur under § 304.*fn4 Over these objections, on July 8, 2008, the district court entered final judgment approving the Settlement. The court subsequently entered an order granting derivative counsel's application for attorneys' fees and rejecting Cohen's application for attorneys' fees. This appeal followed.
It was in December 2006 that the district court was first presented with the proposed Settlement, which had been agreed to by derivative counsel, class counsel, the named defendants, and DHB. The following month, Cohen moved to intervene in the consolidated class and derivative actions pursuant to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 24(a)(2) and, inter alia, objected to preliminary approval of the proposed Settlement. Cohen subsequently filed a memorandum of law in opposition to that approval and, in May 2007, appeared at a court hearing held to review it. The court made a preliminary finding in favor of the Settlement and subsequently entered an order to that effect.
In September 2007, Cohen filed objections to final approval of the Settlement.
On October 1, 2007, DHB filed restated financial statements for 2003, 2004, and the first three quarters of 2005. Three days later, on October 4, 2007, the DOJ petitioned the district court pursuant to the Class Action Fairness Act, 28 U.S.C. §§ 1715 et seq., for an extension of time to evaluate the proposed Settlement.
The following month, the United States filed objections to the Settlement, principally on the grounds that it: (i) limited the remedies available to the government in pending criminal cases against the individual defendants, and (ii) undermined efforts by the SEC to hold the individual defendants liable for disgorgement under § 304. In letters to the district court in December 2007 and June 2008, the United States Attorney for the Eastern District of New York expressed concern regarding its ability to seek restitution in connection with ...