The opinion of the court was delivered by: Honorable Michael A. Telesca United States District Judge
Pro se petitioner Rodney Lowman ("Petitioner") has filed a timely petition for a writ of habeas corpus under 28 U.S.C. § 2254 challenging the constitutionality of his custody pursuant to a judgment entered March 28, 2006, in New York State, County Court, Ontario County, convicting him, after a jury trial, of Criminal Sale of a Controlled Substance in the Third Degree (N.Y. Penal Law ("Penal Law") § 220.39 ), two counts of Criminal Possession of a Controlled Substance in the Third Degree (Penal Law § 220.16 ), and one count of Criminal Possession of a Controlled Substance in the Fifth Degree (Penal Law § 220.06).
For the reasons stated below, habeas relief is denied and the petition is dismissed.
II. Factual Background and Procedural History
On August 10, 2005, Sandra Moracco ("Moracco"), a confidential informant working with the police, called Police Officer Brian Choffin ("Officer Choffin") and told him that she had observed Petitioner sell crack cocaine to an individual and that Petitioner was in possession of an additional quantity of crack cocaine. Moracco told Officer Choffin that she would be driving Petitioner to a McDonald's restaurant and gave Officer Choffin her travel route. Officer Choffin, along with other police officers, pulled over the car and searched Petitioner. Officer Choffin recovered $325 from Petitioner, but no drugs. Petitioner was then taken to the police precinct and a warrant was issued for the search of Petitioner's person. Officer Choffin recovered from Petitioner's rectum 38 small bags of crack cocaine alone with larger chunks of cocaine.
By Ontario County Indictment No. 05-07-089, Petitioner was charged with one count of Criminal Sale of a Controlled Substance in the Third Degree (Penal Law § 220.39 ), two counts of Criminal Possession of a Controlled Substance in the Third Degree (Penal Law § 220.16 ), and one count of Criminal Possession of a Controlled Substance in the Fifth Degree (Penal Law § 220.06). After a trial, Petitioner was found guilty as charged.
On January 17, 2006, the Hon. Craig J. Doran conducted a hearing on Petitioner's motion to suppress physical evidence based on a lack of probable cause for arresting him.
On August 10, 2005, Officer Choffin received a telephone call from a confidential informant that he had been utilizing to investigate Petitioner's drug activities.*fn1 During the phone conversation, the informant told Officer Choffin that Petitioner was carrying a substantial amount of cocaine in his "crotch area." Hr'g Mins. [H.M.] 15-17, 25. The informant told Officer Choffin that Petitioner would be the front seat passenger of a red vehicle with which Officer Choffin was familiar. The informant stated that the vehicle was driving toward a McDonald's restaurant on Hamilton Street in the City of Geneva. H.M. 17-18. Officer Choffin went to Hamilton Street and observed the vehicle and saw that Petitioner was in the passenger seat. H.M. 18. Officer Choffin and other officers pulled over the vehicle. Officer Choffin asked Petitioner if he had anything illegal on him and Petitioner responded, "I don't have anything illegal, you can go ahead and search my pockets." H.M. 19. Officer Choffin searched Petitioner but did not find anything. H.M. 19, 23. Officer Choffin detained Petitioner at the precinct and obtained a search warrant for Petitioner's person. H.M. 20, 23. Officer Choffin recovered 38 individually packaged bags of crack cocaine as well as approximately 13 grams of cocaine from Petitioner's anal cavity. H.M. 20. Officer Choffin also recovered $325 from Petitioner's pockets. H.M. 21.
Petitioner presented no evidence at the hearing.
3. The Hearing Court's Decision
The hearing court credited the testimony of Officer Choffin and made factual findings consistent with Officer Choffin's testimony. H.M. 29. The hearing court denied Petitioner's probable cause challenge, concluding that "there was probable cause for the officer to engage in the initial encounter with the vehicle in which [Petitioner] was a passenger." H.M. 31.
On March 27, 2006, Petitioner proceeded to trial before Justice Doran and a jury.
On April 1, 2005, Moracco, a crack cocaine user, was pulled over in her car by the police. At that time, her driver's license had expired. Trial Trans. [T.T.] 137-138, 140, 161-162. Rather than issue her a ticket, the police worked out an arrangement whereby she would provide them with information about drug activity in the Geneva area. T.T. 141-142.
On July 12, 2005, Moracco worked with Police Investigator Susan Kaduc ("Investigator Kaduc") to purchase drugs from Petitioner. T.T. 145, 173, 245. Moracco called Petitioner and told him that she had $100, and he told her that he would sell her six bags worth $20 each. They agreed to meet at a liquor store. T.T. 146-147, 174. Moracco and Investigator Kudac went to the store and saw Petitioner arrive in his vehicle. As Moracco and Investigator Kudac got out of their vehicle, Petitioner said that he "did not want to meet any of [her] friends," so Investigator Kudac went back to the car. T.T. 148, 175. Moracco gave Petitioner the money and Petitioner gave her a napkin containing six small bags of crack cocaine. After Petitioner drove away, Moracco gave the drugs to Kudac. T.T. 149, 167, 176-178.
On August 10, 2005, Moracco was inside a friend's apartment when Petitioner arrived. At some point, Petitioner sat on a couch next to Moracco, and another person in the apartment gave Petitioner money for drugs. Moracco saw Petitioner reach into his boxers and pull out "a plastic bag holding numerous baggies and two big chunks of cocaine in the baggie." T.T. 150153. Petitioner gave two baggies to the man that gave him money. Petitioner asked Moracco if she would drive him to McDonald's. When Petitioner went to the bathroom, Moracco called Officer Choffin and told him that Petitioner had "about $1000 worth" of cocaine and that they would be driving toward McDonald's. Before they left, Moracco saw Petitioner adjust his boxer shorts with his hand. T.T. 155, 168, 238-239.
As Moracco drove, Officer Choffin signaled for her to stop the car. T.T. 157-158, 241. Officer Choffin asked Petitioner if he had anything illegal on him. Petitioner said that he did not and invited Officer Choffin to search his pockets. T.T. 242. Officer Choffin removed Petitioner from the car and searched Petitioner's pockets. Officer Choffin recovered $325, but did not recover any drugs. T.T. 242. Officer Choffin searched Moracco's car for the drugs but did not find them. T.T. 244. Officer Choffin handcuffed Petitioner and directed another officer to drive Petitioner to the precinct. T.T. 194-195. Moracco gave Officer Choffin a signed statement reporting that Petitioner had individual baggies of cocaine in addition to two "rocks" of cocaine. T.T. 159-160.
Officer Choffin received permission to search the apartment from where Moracco and Petitioner had come, but no drugs were recovered. T.T. 243. Officer Choffin subsequently obtained a search warrant for Petitioner's person. In executing the search warrant, Officer Choffin had Petitioner remove his clothing and face a wall. When Petitioner did so, Officer Choffin observed bags hanging out of his rectum and recovered them. T.T. 225. In total, Officer Choffin recovered 38 bags of crack cocaine along with additional large chunks of cocaine. T.T. 225-226, 231.
Petitioner presented no witnesses at trial.
On March 28, 2006, Petitioner was found guilty as charged. He was sentenced as a second felony drug offender to concurrent, determinate prison terms of four years for each count of third degree sale and drug possession, three years for the fifth degree drug ...