The opinion of the court was delivered by: Gary L. Sharpe District Court Judge
MEMORANDUM-DECISION AND ORDER
In this consolidated action, plaintiffs Janet Anderson and Betty Pulver allege that their former employer, defendant Dolgencorp of New York, Inc. (Dollar General) deprived them of lawful overtime wages in violation of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA).*fn1 (See No. 09-cv-360, 2d Am. Compl., Dkt. No. 4; No. 09-cv-363, 2d Am. Compl., Dkt. No. 4.) Pending are Dollar General's motions for summary judgment as against each plaintiff and to strike certain evidence offered by plaintiffs in opposition to the summary judgment motions. (See No. 09-cv-360, Dkt. Nos. 38, 50; No. 09-cv-363, Dkt. No. 27.) For the reasons that follow, the motions are denied.
Defendant Dollar General is a retailer of basic consumable goods, such as cleaning supplies, health and beauty aids, foods and snacks, housewares, toys, and basic apparel. (See No. 09-cv-360, Def. Common SMF ¶ 1, Dkt. No. 39.) As of 2005, Dollar General operated approximately 7,500 stand-alone Dollar General Stores in thirty states, with an average sales volume of over $1 million per store. (See id. at ¶ 2.)
Each Dollar General store is staffed by a Store Manager, an Assistant Manager (ASM), a Lead Clerk, and multiple store clerks. (See id. at ¶ 3.) Of these employees, Store Managers occupy the highest level of supervisory authority and are the only employees paid on a salaried basis. (See id.) Each Store Manager reports to a District Manager (DM), each of whom oversees from fifteen to twenty-five stores. (See id. at ¶ 4.)
During the relevant times, Dollar General described a Store Manager's general responsibilities as "the management of all employees in the effective planning and implementation of all store processes, including ordering, receiving, stocking, presentation, selling, staffing and support." (No. 09-cv-360, Shaul Aff., Ex. 11, Store Manager Job Description, Dkt. No. 45:11 (filed under seal).) Encompassed within these broadly-defined responsibilities are the specific, "essential" duties to:
* Recruit, select and retain qualified employees according to federal and state labor laws and company policies; ensure store is properly staffed;
* Provide proper training for employees; conduct performance evaluations; identify gaps for appropriate solutions and/or counseling, up to and including termination;
* Make recommendations regarding employee pay rate and advancement;
* Communicate performance, conduct and safety expectations regularly; coordinate meetings and events to encourage safety, security and policies;
* Ensure that the store is appropriately staffed and effectively opened and closed each day;
* Evaluate operating statements to identify business trends (including sales, profitability, and turn), expense control opportunities, potential shrink, and errors;
* Ensure that all merchandise is presented according to established practices; utilize merchandise fixtures properly including presentation, product pricing and signage;
* Maintain accurate inventory levels by controlling damages, markdowns, scanning, paperwork, and facility controls;
* Ensure the financial integrity of the store through strict cashier accountability, key control, and adherence to stated company security practices and cash control procedures;
* Provide superior customer service leadership;
* Maintain a clean, well-organized store; facilitate a safe and secure working and shopping environment;
* Ensure that store is adequately equipped with tools necessary to perform required tasks; and
* Complete all paperwork and documentation according to guidelines and deadlines.
The job description further outlines certain "Working Conditions and Physical Requirements" associated with the Store Manager position. (See id.) These include: "[f]requent walking and standing"; "[f]requent bending, stooping and kneeling to run check out station, stock merchandise, and unload trucks"; "occasional climbing"; and "frequent and proper lifting of up to 40 pounds[, and] occasional lifting of up to 65 pounds." (Id.)
With respect to compensation, in addition to their weekly salaries, Store Managers are generally eligible for certain bonuses, such as annual "Teamshare" bonuses and quarterly "in stock" bonuses. (See No. 09-cv-360, Def. Common SMF ¶ 13, Dkt. No. 39.) Teamshare bonuses are tied to the financial performance of the Store Manager's individual store and the manager's individual performance as a manager. (See id.) To the extent that Assistant Managers have also been eligible for Teamshare bonuses, it appears that their eligibility never exceeded 30% of what a Store Manager could earn. (See id. at ¶ 14.) As to in-stock bonuses, they were awarded in the amount of $250 per quarter if certain in-stock goals were met, and only to Store Managers. (See id. at ¶¶ 13, 14.)
In assessing the financial performance of a Store Manager's individual store, Dollar General considers whether and to what extent the store is meeting its quarterly and annual sales goals, minimizing inventory shrink and controllable expense, and maximizing profit. (See No. 09-cv-360, Allen Aff., Ex. 3, Store Manager Performance Evaluation Form, Dkt. No. 41:3 (filed under seal). Relatedly, in evaluating a Store Manger's managerial and leadership skills, Dollar General examines the manager's performance in seven focus areas: sales volume, controllable expense, inventory shrink, merchandising/in stock, training and development, customer satisfaction, and safety awareness. (See id.)
In February 2002, plaintiff Janet Anderson was hired by Dollar General as an ASM for Store No. 8576 in Burnt Hills, New York. (See No. 09-cv-360, Def. SMF (Anderson) ¶ 1, Dkt. No. 38:1.) In April 2002, Anderson was promoted to the position of Store Manager, which she held until her resignation in November 2002. (See id. at ¶ 2.) According to Anderson, other than the on-the-job training she received as an ASM, she did not receive any training when she was promoted to Store Manager. (See No. 09-cv-360, Anderson SMF Resp., Additional Facts ¶ 20, Dkt. No. 46:1.)
As a Store Manager, Anderson was paid a fixed weekly salary of $425.00, was eligible for the performance-based bonuses discussed above, and worked an average of fifty hours per week. (See No. 09-cv-360, Def. SMF (Anderson) ¶¶ 6, 8, 25, Dkt. No. 38:1.) According to Anderson, she understood when she took the Store Manager position that she would be working more than forty hours per week, and that her salary was to compensate her for all hours worked since she would not be paid for overtime. (See id. at ¶¶ 6, 7; No. 09-cv-360, Anderson SMF Resp. ¶ 7, Dkt. No. 46:1.) During Anderson's tenure as Store Manager, the next highest paid employee, an ASM, earned $7.00 per hour and worked an average of thirty-one hours per week. (See id.)
With respect to her job functions, Anderson acknowledged in deposition that she performed all of the duties outlined in the Store Manager job description, and agreed that the description provides an accurate general summary of her position as Store Manager. (See No. 09-cv-360, Def. SMF (Anderson) ¶ 15, Dkt. No. 38:1.) In line with that testimony, Anderson explained that she was responsible for supervising the other store employees, including an ASM, a "Third-Key" or Lead Clerk, and the other store clerks, and for performing other managerial duties. (See id. at ¶ 3.)
As part of her supervisory duties, Anderson testified that she trained employees on store policy and other related issues; directed, supervised, and evaluated employees' work; coached, disciplined, and counseled employees where necessary; recommended employee pay raises and promotions to her DM (recommendations that were always accepted); and scheduled employees' hours. (See id. at ¶¶ 14, 16.) With respect to scheduling, Anderson managed approximately 168 to 212 labor hours per week, meaning that she allocated Dollar General's labor hour allotment amongst the employees she supervised. (See id. at ¶ 4.)
In addition to these supervisory tasks, Anderson also performed other duties, including interviewing and hiring employees; monitoring and evaluating weekly sales reports and store operating reports; ensuring that cash registers "balanced"; completing daily paperwork, such as payroll and bank deposits; managing inventory levels; ensuring that merchandise was properly staged and stocked, largely in accordance with Dollar General "Plan-O-Grams"*fn3 ; leading team meetings; and ensuring that the store was properly open and closed. (See id. at ¶¶ 14, 16.)
Anderson also performed non-managerial tasks in her role as Store Manager. Specifically, she testified to running the cash register, stocking shelves, facing products on the shelves, helping unload delivery trucks, and cleaning the store.*fn4 (See No. 09-cv-360, Anderson SMF Resp., Additional Facts ¶¶ 4, 6, 7, Dkt. No. 46:1.) With respect to the division of her time, Anderson testified to spending at least half of her time on managerial duties. (See No. 09-cv-360, Def. SMF (Anderson) ¶ 26, Dkt. No. 38:1.) Anderson agreed, however, that when she was performing non- managerial tasks, she would continue to monitor and manage the operation of the store. (See No. 09-cv-360, Def. SMF (Anderson) ¶ 27, Dkt. No. 38:1.) Anderson further testified that if Dollar General would have allotted larger labor hour budgets, she would have been able to focus more time on her managerial duties and less on non-managerial tasks. (See No. 09-cv-360, Anderson Dep. at 237:11-16, Dkt. No. 38:4.) According to Anderson, the labor budget was allocated such that only two employees, including herself, could typically be working at one time. (See No. 09-cv-360, Anderson SMF Resp., Additional Facts ¶¶ 5-7, Dkt. No. 46:1.) Often, then, as Anderson testified, she would stock the shelves, unload a delivery truck, or clean the store while the only other employee working would run the cash register. (See id.)
In performing her duties as Store Manager, managerial or otherwise, Anderson was expected to act in accordance with Dollar General's standard policies and procedures. (See No. 09-cv-360, Def. SMF (Anderson) ¶ 19, Dkt. No. 38:1.) Those policies and procedures, which were contained in the company's Standard Operating Procedures Manual (SOP), provided direction in how to perform certain store operations. (See id.) According to Anderson, however, while the SOP provided general guidance and direction, it did not cover every issue that would arise in the store on a daily basis. (See id.)
During her tenure as Store Manager, Anderson reported to DM Bob Seaman. (See id. at ¶ 12.) Mr. Seaman, unlike Anderson, did not have an office in or a key to Anderson's store, but would visit the store on a periodic basis. (See id.) According to Anderson, Mr. Seaman visited her store approximately once every five to six weeks. (See id.) During those visits, which typically lasted one hour, Mr. Seaman would walk through the store with Anderson and provide her with ideas and recommendations for improving the store. (See id.) Anderson testified that implementation of these ideas and recommendations was not mandatory, explaining that she used some of Mr. Seaman's suggestions but not others. (See id.) Apart from these store visits, it appears from Anderson's testimony that her communications with Mr. Seaman were relatively infrequent. According to Anderson, she spoke with Mr. Seaman on the telephone approximately six times-about once per month-and received a voice mail message from him every four or five weeks. (See id.) And with respect to those voice mail messages, Anderson testified that they were typically "district wide" and not specific to Anderson or her store. (See id.) Overall, despite Mr. Seaman's oversight, Anderson felt that she was "in charge" of her store, and further testified that Mr. Seaman did not interfere with the performance of her managerial duties. (See id. at ¶¶ 13, 17.
Ultimately, as noted above, Anderson resigned from her employment with Dollar General in November ...