In this case, Wilhelm Mickelsen, who is currently 68 years old, brings an age discrimination claim against Offset Paperback Manufacturers, Inc. ("Offset") and Bertelsmann, Inc. under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act ("ADEA") and the New York City Human Rights Law ("NYCHRL"). He asserts that Offset is a company owned by Bertelsmann, Inc. and that he began working for Offset in 1986 as a salesperson. He claims that in 2006, defendants developed a discriminatory preference for youth which culminated in a drastic reduction in his compensation and several humiliating actions, such as temporarily moving him from an office to a cubicle.
Defendants move for summary judgment. They argue that Offset is entitled to summary judgment, because Mickelsen cannot establish a prima facie case of age discrimination, and it had a legitimate, business reason for modifying his compensation that was not a pretext for discrimination. They also argue that Bertelsmann, Inc. is entitled to summary judgment, because it is not Mickelsen‟s employer and has no liability in this action. Mickelsen opposes this motion.
The court grants defendants‟ motion for summary judgment.
The following facts are not in dispute unless otherwise stated. Mickelsen was born on August 13, 1943 and is currently 68 years old. Offset, a manufacturer of mass-market paperback books located in New York City, hired Mickelsen in 1986 as a salesperson when he was 42 years old. As a salesperson, Mickelsen‟s job was to secure contracts with publishing companies to produce books for distribution, and Offset compensated him on a commission basis.
Offset is a subsidiary of Bertelsmann, Inc., which is a U.S. holding company for Bertelsmann AG, a German company.
In or around 1992, Offset promoted Mickelsen to Senior Vice-President of Sales and Marketing. In this capacity, he was responsible for managing Offset‟s sales group, which consisted of four employees, and he reported to Michael Gallagher, the president of Offset. At this time, he also became a salaried employee, although he continued to work as a salesperson.
Defendants assert that because Mickelsen was not an effective manager, he was relieved of his management responsibilities in 1996. Mickelsen disputes this assertion and states that he was never told that he was an ineffective manager. Nevertheless, he acknowledges that he ceased serving as a sales manager in 1996. He subsequently retained his salary and title of Senior Vice-President and focused exclusively on sales work.
In 2007, Offset was reorganized. This reorganization had to do with Arvato Print Worldwide, which was part of the Bertelsmann family of companies, and appears to have been a subsidiary of Bertelsmann AG. Arvato was located in Germany. As of January 1, 2007, Offset was placed under the supervision of Arvato, along with three other Bertelsmann companies that served different functions within the publishing process. According to defendants, the purpose of this reorganization was to facilitate a better working relationship between the four companies, expand the business, and reduce costs in light of difficult economic conditions for print media. Gallagher now reported to Markus Dohle, the president of Arvato. In the spring of 2007, apparently in April, David Liess replaced Dohle as president of Arvato. At this time, Liess also replaced Gallagher as Mickelsen‟s supervisor. Dohle stopped being involved with Arvato in approximately July 2007.
Defendants assert that Liess made the decision to restructure the sales force of Offset and the other three Arvato businesses, so that all salespersons would be placed within one group and have standardized compensation. In particular, Liess implemented a sales compensation plan (the "Sales Compensation Plan"), under which salespersons were assigned the same base salary, with an opportunity to earn additional income through commissions. Mickelsen agrees that the chief executive of Arvato initiated the Sales Compensation Plan and imposed it on Offset and the other businesses under Arvato‟s supervision. Indeed, Mickelsen‟s main complaint in the case is about this Sales Compensation Plan. However, Mickelsen asserts that it was Dohle, not Liess, who brought about that Plan.
The Sales Compensation Plan affected a range of employees at the companies under Arvato, not just Mickelsen. It had a drastic and detrimental effect on Mickelsen, who made about 60% less under the Plan than he had made previously. There is no indication that Mickelsen was treated under the plan in any discriminatory manner.
As part of Offset‟s corporate reorganization, Mickelsen was temporarily assigned from an office to a cubicle. Subsequently, he was reassigned to his prior office. Mickelsen also had a second office in Offset‟s Dallas, Pennsylvania location that was unaffected by Offset‟s reorganization. Mickelsen claims that his temporary assignment to a cubicle in New York was humiliating.
In addition, the Sales Compensation Plan listed Mickelsen as a "Journeyman." Defendants assert that "Journeyman" is not a title, and Mickelsen does not dispute that he has maintained his title of Senior Vice-President. Nevertheless, Mickelsen claims that he was offended by being called a "Journeyman."
Mickelsen also asserts that he has been excluded from meetings for Vice-Presidents and Directors of Offset. Defendants dispute this assertion, arguing that although a few staff meetings were held when Liess took over in 2007, these meetings were quickly discontinued, because there were only a few ...