The opinion of the court was delivered by: P. Kevin Castel, District Judge:
The plaintiffs in this action assert that certain state statutes directed toward the relationships between vehicle manufacturers and their dealership franchises violate the Supremacy Clause because they are contrary to provisions of the federal Bankruptcy Code, 11 U.S.C. §§ 363, 365, et seq., as well as the orders of the bankruptcy court in In re Old Carco LLC (f/k/a Chrysler LLC), et al., Case No. 09-50002 (AJG) (the "Bankruptcy Court"). Separately, the plaintiffs contend that the statutes unlawfully interfere with the parties' reasonable contractual expectations, thereby violating the Contract Clause of the Constitution and the Kentucky State Constitution. In an Order dated April, 2011, this Court withdrew the automatic reference to the Bankruptcy Court, concluding that non-core issues of federal law predominated. (Docket #5.)
The plaintiffs move for summary judgment in their favor, and officials from the state of Kentucky move to dismiss the Complaint.
For the reasons explained below, plaintiff's motion for summary judgment is granted as to the claim of preemption under the Supremacy Clause against the Kentucky defendants. The motion to dismiss filed by the Kentucky defendants is denied. The claim against Colorado is dismissed without prejudice for the reasons discussed below. I do not reach the plaintiff's Contract Clause claim as it is unnecessary to do so. Familiarity with my opinion in In re Old Carco LLC, 442 B.R. 196 (S.D.N.Y. 2010), is assumed.
The facts of this case are largely undisputed. Except as noted, the facts asserted by the plaintiffs, as they are set forth bellow, are admitted by all defendants. Every reasonable inference is drawn in favor of the non-moving parties. Allen v. Coughlin, 64 F.3d 77, 79 (2d Cir. 1995).
Plaintiffs Old Carco and Old Carco Motors (collectively, the "Debtor Plaintiffs") are, along with twenty-four of their affiliates, debtors in the above-captioned Chapter 11 bankruptcy proceedings. (Pl. 56.1 ¶ 1; Col.. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 1; Ken. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 1) Old Carco formerly manufactured Chrysler, Jeep and Dodge brand vehicles, with Old Carco Motors acting as distributor to authorized dealers in the United States. (Pl. 56.1 ¶ 2; Col.. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 2; Ken. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 2) Plaintiff Chrysler Group LLC ("New Chrysler") is a newly created entity that assumed certain liabilities of Chrysler debtors, including non-parties to this action. (Pl. 56.1 ¶ 4; Col.. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 4; Ken. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 4) New Chrysler both manufactures and distributes the Chrysler, Jeep and Dodge vehicle brands. (Pl. 56.1 ¶ 4; Col.. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 4; Ken. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 4) It is not a debtor in the bankruptcy action.
Three separate rulings of the Bankruptcy Court are relevant to the preemption claim. Each of these rulings bears on the plaintiffs' obligations to vehicle dealership franchises, the state-law regimes that govern relations between manufacturers, distributors and dealers, and the nexus between the Bankruptcy Code and state dealer laws.
I. The Sale Opinion and the Sale Order
The Debtor Plaintiffs entered into a purchase agreement with New Chrysler and Fiat S.p.A ("Fiat") dated April 30, 2009 (the "Purchase Agreement"). (Pl. 56.1 ¶ 3; Col.. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 3; Ken. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 3.) As summarized in an opinion of the Bankruptcy Court approving the transaction, New Chrysler acquired the debtors' assets and liabilities for $2 billion, while Fiat acquired an ownership interest in New Chrysler and provided it with technological support. In re Chrysler, LLC, 405 B.R. 84, 92 (Bankr. S.D.N.Y. 2009). On May 3, 2009, all Chrysler debtors filed a motion in the Bankruptcy Court for the approval of the Purchase Agreement. (Pl. 56.1 ¶ 10; Col.. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 10; Ken. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 10.) Several state attorneys general objected. (Pl. 56.1 ¶ 19; Col.. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 19; Ken. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 19.) The Bankruptcy Court approved the Purchase Agreement and the underlying transaction in a written opinion (the "Sale Opinion"), which, among other things, concluded that if the transaction did not proceed, the debtors would likely be forced into immediate liquidation. In re Chrysler, LLC, 405 B.R. at 96. The Sale Opinion was accompanied by a separate order that approved the transaction (the "Sale Order"). (Pl. 56.1 ¶ 11; Col.. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 11; Ken. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 11.) The Sale Opinion and Sale Order were affirmed by the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. See In re Chrysler, LLC, 592 F.3d 370, 372 (2d Cir. 2009). (Pl. 56.1 ¶ 12; Col. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 12; Ken. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 12.) Subsequently, the Second Circuit vacated its judgment as moot, consistent with the instructions of the Supreme Court. See In re Old Carco LLC, 592 F.3d 370, 372 (2d Cir. 2010).
II. The Assumed Agreements and the Rejected Dealer Agreements Pursuant to the Purchase Agreement and the Sale Order, New Chrysler's "purchased assets" included assumed and assigned dealer agreements for Chrysler, Dodge and Jeep vehicle lines (the "Assumed Agreements"). (Pl. 56.1 ¶ 13; Col. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 13; Ken. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 13.) Certain dealer agreements were not assumed by New Chrysler (the "Rejected Dealer Agreements"), and New Chrysler filed with the Bankruptcy Court a motion to confirm its assumption and rejection of the agreements. (Pl. 56.1 ¶¶ 14-15; Col. 56.1 Opp. ¶¶ 14-15; Ken. 56.1 Opp. ¶¶ 14-15.) Again, certain state attorneys general, including Kentucky's, objected to the motion and participated in the related hearings. (Pl. 56.1 ¶ 19; Col. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 19; Ken. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 19.) Colorado had notice and a full and fair opportunity to participate in discovery and hearings and to be heard in opposition. (Pl. 56.1 ¶ 20; Col. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 20.) Neither of the defendants appealed the Sale Order or Rejection Order. (Pl. 56.1 ¶ 21; Col. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 21; Ken. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 21.)
On June 9, 2009, following argument and an evidentiary hearing, the Bankruptcy Court entered an order, pursuant to 11 U.S.C. §§ 105 and 365, that authorized the debtors' rejection of the executory contracts and unexpired leases with the Rejected Dealers (the "Rejection Order"). (Pl. 56.1 ¶ 115; Col. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 15; Ken. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 15.) On June 19, 2009, the Bankruptcy Court issued an opinion explaining the basis for the Rejection Order, particularly as to the debtors' "persuasive showing" that the rejection of existing dealer contracts would benefit the estate and was the product of sound business judgment. In re Old Carco LLC, 406 B.R. 180, 192, 194-99 (Bankr. S.D.N.Y. 2009). *fn1 The Bankruptcy Court held that while the state laws intended to grant protection to dealer franchises may have been adopted in the public interest, they did not account for the national interest embodied in federal bankruptcy laws, and were not adopted to protect the states' citizens from imminent threats to health or safety. Id. at 189-91. The Bankruptcy Court concluded that application of the state statutes would obstruct federal bankruptcy adjudication, specifically as to the Bankruptcy Court's power to reject executor contracts under 11 U.S.C. § 365, and that the state laws were preempted. Id. at 199-207.
III. Preemption of Rejected-Dealer Claims Brought Under State Law
On August 13, 2009, the debtors and New Chrysler filed a joint motion in the Bankruptcy Court to enjoin legal actions brought by Rejected Dealers in Arkansas, Ohio and Wisconsin as contrary to the Sale Order, the Sale Opinion, the Rejection Order and the Rejection Opinion, as well as the Bankruptcy Code's automatic stay provision, 11 U.S.C. § 362. (Pl. 56.1 ¶ 22; Col. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 22; Ken. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 22.) In an unpublished opinion dated August 31, 2009, the Bankruptcy Court held that the Sale Order barred the dealers' lawsuits, since the Sale Order "clearly prohibited any successor or transferee liabilities against New Chrysler." (Compl. Ex. F at 5-6.) The Bankruptcy Court stated that "a crucial condition" of its approval of the Fiat transaction was that New Chrysler would not be required to assume all then-existing dealer agreements, and it concluded that the actions against New Chrysler brought pursuant to the state franchise laws were "enjoined by the Sale Order." (Compl. Ex. F at 6.)
The Bankruptcy Court also held that the state franchise laws were "preempted by the Bankruptcy Code to the extent that the enforcement of such laws conflict with the terms of the Sale Order or the impact of the rejection of the rejected agreements." (Compl. Ex. F at 7.) It noted that the Rejection Order stated that the Rejected Dealers "shall have no further rights (direct, indirect, contractual or otherwise) to act as an Authorized Dealer . . . ." (Compl. Ex. F. at 7.) The dealers' legal actions, the Bankruptcy Court held, are in direct conflict with the terms of the Rejection Order because the Dealers are seeking to burden New Chrysler with the obligation of either continuing the previously rejected dealer agreements or suffering other unfavorable consequences as a result of the rejected dealer agreements. The Rejection Order ended the Dealers' right to act as authorized dealers while the Wisconsin, Ohio and Arkansas statutes resurrect precisely those rights and compel New Chrysler, the successor/transferee of Debtors, to resume the dealer agreements. As there is a direct conflict between the Rejection Order and the statutes under which the Subject Actions are based, the state statutes are preempted under the Rejection Order and the Dealers are enjoined under the Sale Order from bringing any actions pursuant to these statutes in any court.
(Compl. Ex. F at 8.) The Bankruptcy Court further held that because the state lawsuits "would undermine and frustrate the benefit achieved through the rejection process, such statutes were preempted." (Compl. Ex. F at 9.) In an unpublished memorandum and order dated July 2, 2010, Judge McMahon affirmed the Bankruptcy Court's opinion. In re Old Carco Liquidation Trust, 09 Civ. 8875 (CM) (S.D.N.Y. July 2, 2010).
IV. Allegations in the Present Action
The Complaint asserts that federal preemption bars state officials from enforcing certain dealership laws, and seeks declaratory and injunctive relief. In March 2010, Colorado amended several sections of its state dealer laws. (Pl. 56.1 ¶ 25; Col. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 25) In June 2010, Colorado also enacted an additional amendment to its dealer law. (Pl. 56.1 ¶ 26; Col. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 26.) Kentucky enacted an amendment to its state dealer law in July 2010. (Pl. 56.1 ¶ 27; Ken. 56.1 Opp. ¶ 29.) The defendants are government officials of the states of Colorado and Kentucky whose responsibilities include the enforcement of state automobile dealer laws. (Pl. 56.1 ¶¶ 5-9; Col. 56.1 Opp. ¶¶ 5-9; Ken. 56.1 Opp. ¶¶ 5-9.) As discussed in greater detail below, these state dealer amendments granted protections to pre-existing dealerships in the event that a manufacturer or distributor were to contract with a new or different dealership in the same geographic area.
On April 23, 2010, the Debtors and New Chrysler filed a Complaint in the Bankruptcy Court, asserting that the Bankruptcy Code and the final orders of the Bankruptcy Court preempt the dealer amendments of Colorado and Kentucky. The Debtor Plaintiffs and New Chrysler also allege that the state dealer laws violate the Contract Clause of the U.S. Constitution, U.S. Const. art. I, § 10. The Debtor Plaintiffs and New Chrysler seek a declaration pursuant to the Declaratory Judgment Act, 28 U.S.C. § 2201(a), which, with exceptions not relevant here, provides that "any court of the United States, upon the filing of an appropriate pleading, may declare the rights and other legal relations of any interested party seeking such declaration, whether or not further relief is or could be sought."
The Colorado defendants filed a motion in this Court to withdraw the reference pursuant to either the mandatory or discretionary withdrawal provisions of 28 U.S.C. § 157(d). (Docket # 1.) They argued that the Complaint raised only issues of non-core federal law -- specifically including federal preemption, the Contracts Clause and the Federal Dealer Arbitration Statue, codified in the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2010, Pub. L. 111-117, § 747, 123 Stat. 3034, 3219-21 (2009). The Kentucky defendant did not join the motion to withdraw the reference. The Court concluded that the mandatory withdrawal provisions of section 157(d) applied, since the Complaint was based upon substantial and material issues of federal law outside of the Bankruptcy Code. (Docket # 5.)
The present motion followed. In addition, the Kentucky defendant moves to dismiss the Complaint. The Court heard oral argument on the pending motions.
THE DECLARATORY JUDGMENT ACT AND THE ELEVENTH AMENDMENT
This is an action for declaratory and injunctive relief against public officials in Colorado and Kentucky. The defendants concede that this court has subject matter jurisdiction pursuant to 28 U.S.C. §§ 1331 and 1367 but assert that the case is barred by the Eleventh Amendment. (Col. Opp. at 10; Ken. Mem. at 8; Ken. Rep. at 4.) In Ex parte Young, 209 U.S. 123 (1908), the Supreme Court held that the Eleventh Amendment does not bar a suit for prospective injunctive relief against a state official alleged to have violated federal law. Pursuant to the Declaratory Judgment Act, 28 U.S.C. § 2201, Count I of the Complaint seeks declaratory relief as to federal preemption of the state laws, and Count II seeks declaratory relief as to a Contract Clause claim. (Compl. ¶¶ 54-67.) The Complaint also seeks a permanent injunction against "enforcement or application of the Rejected Dealer Amendments to New Chrysler . . . ." (Complaint, Relief Requested ¶ (c).)
The Declaratory Judgment Act provides that "[i]n a case of actual controversy within its jurisdiction . . . any court of the United States . . . may declare the rights and other legal relations of any interested party seeking such declaration, whether or not further relief is or could be sought." 28 U.S.C. § 2201(a). "[T]he phrase 'case or actual controversy' in the Act refers to the type of 'Cases' and 'Controversies' that are justiciable under Article III." MedImmune, Inc. v. Genentech, Inc., 549 U.S. 118, 127 (2007). In MedImmune, which arose in the patent context, the Supreme Court stated, among other things, that in a declaratory judgment action, "where threatened action by government is concerned, we do not require a plaintiff to expose himself to liability before bringing suit to challenge the basis for the threat -- for example, the constitutionality of a law threatened to be enforced." Id. at 129 (emphasis in original). In declaratory judgment actions, "the question in each ...