The opinion of the court was delivered by: William M. Skretny Chief Judge United States District Court
Appellant and creditor, Business Financial Group ("BFG"), seeks reversal of the Order of the Hon. Michael J. Kaplan, United States Bankruptcy Judge, Western District of New York, which found that appellee and debtor, Dommer Construction Corp. ("Dommer"), could offset certain debt it owed BFG.*fn1 In rendering his judgment, Judge Kaplan expressly disagreed with a previous New York State court decision that came to a contrary conclusion. Specifically, BFG appeals Judge Kaplan's finding that the Rooker-Feldman doctrine did not apply, allowing him to come to a different conclusion than the New York State court. For the following reasons, Judge Kaplan's Order is affirmed.
The precise nature of Dommer's underlying petition in the bankruptcy court and the background explaining how Dommer became indebted to BFG are irrelevant to this action. It suffices to note that Dommer is a general contractor that became liable to BFG for loans that BFG provided to Dommer's subcontractor, MBE Group Inc. See In re Dommer Constr. Corp., No. 10-12764K, 2011 WL 832901, at *1 (W.D.N.Y. Mar. 3, 2011).
BFG eventually sued on this debt in New York State court. On March 29, 2010, the New York State Supreme Court, County of Erie, found Dommer liable in the amount of $438,725.17. Bus. Funding Grp., Inc. v. Dommer Constr. Corp., Index No. 2005-5161 (N.Y. Sup. Ct. Mar. 29, 2010) (unreported). Several months later, on June 22, 2010, the same court denied Dommer's motion for reconsideration and subsequently signed a judgment in BFG's favor for the aforementioned amount. (Dommer's Objection to BFG's Motion for Leave to Appeal ("Objection"), ¶ 6; Docket No. 4-11.) But before that judgment was entered at the Erie County Clerk's Office, Dommer filed for relief in the bankruptcy court under Chapter 11, thus automatically staying the entry of a final judgment. (Id., ¶ 11.) There is, therefore, no dispute that the judgment was not final and binding under New York State law. See N.Y. C.P.L.R. §§ 5017, 5018(a),(c) (McKinney 2011).
Thereafter, on July 26, 2011, Dommer filed a motion in the bankruptcy court requesting that the automatic stay be lifted to allow entry of the New York judgment, thus allowing Dommer to appeal the decision. (Objection, ¶ 11.) That motion was opposed by BFG, but the parties eventually agreed that because the judgment was not final, the bankruptcy court could review the state court decision. (Id., ¶ 13.)
Consequently, on March 3, 2011, Judge Kaplan issued an Order disagreeing with the state court as it applied to Dommer's debt and instructed BFG to amend its Proof of Claim, which was premised on the state-court decision. In re Dommer, 2011 WL 832901.
However, despite the earlier agreement and a subsequent order concerning the bankruptcy court's ability to review the state court's findings, BFG eventually reversed course, sought reconsideration of the March 3, 2011 Order, and argued that the bankruptcy court did not have subject-matter jurisdiction, pursuant to the Rooker-Feldman doctrine, to review or alter the state court's decision as it applied to BFG's Proof of Claim in bankruptcy court.*fn2 (Objection, ¶ 20.) After oral argument, Judge Kaplan found that he was not barred by the doctrine and therefore denied BFG's motion for reconsideration on that ground. (Order on Motion for Reconsideration; Docket No. 3-16.)
Under its appellate jurisdiction, this Court conducts a de novo review of the law. In re Porges, 44 F.3d 159, 162 (2d Cir. 1995); Teufel v. Schlant, No. 02-CV-81S, 2002 WL 33008689, at *4 (W.D.N.Y. Sept. 25, 2002). The facts, which would be reviewed for clear error, are ...