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United States of America v. William Jackson

May 8, 2012


The opinion of the court was delivered by: Spatt, District Judge.


Presently before the Court is a motion by the Defendant William Jackson ("Jackson") for a sentence reduction pursuant to 18 U.S.C. § 3582(c)(2). For the reasons that follow, the Court finds that Jackson is ineligible for a sentence reduction and therefore his motion is denied.


On May 4, 2007, pursuant to a plea agreement with the Government, Defendant William Jackson pled guilty to a lesser-included offense of the single count indictment, which was reduced to knowingly and intentionally conspiring to distribute and possess with intent to distribute a controlled substance, which offense involved 5 grams or more of a substance containing cocaine base, in violation of 21 U.S.C. §§ 841(a)(1) and 841(b)(1)(B). The Pre- Sentence Report ("PSR") filed by the probation department found a total drug quantity of 4.53 grams of cocaine base and 9.98 grams of cocaine, resulting in a base offense level of 24. In addition, the PSR noted that the Defendant was considered a career offender based on the nature of his prior convictions and hence his base offense level was increased to 34, pursuant to Guideline § 4B1.1(b).

On December 19, 2007, a sentencing hearing was held. Accepting the facts in the PSR, the Court determined, based upon the quantity of drugs involved in his offense, that Jackson had a base offense level of 24. The Court noted that the Defendant was a career offender with two prior felony drug convictions, and thus had a Criminal History Category of VI. Then, applying the career offender guidelines to Jackson's conviction of 21 U.S.C. §§ 841(a)(1) and 841(b)(1)(B) (5 year mandatory minimum, 40 year maximum), the total offense level was raised to 34 pursuant to §4B1.1(b) (offense statutory maximum of 25 years or more). However, after a three-level reduction for acceptance of responsibility, and a one-level reduction for a global plea, the total offense level was calculated as 30.

Accordingly, the Court found that the applicable Guidelines sentencing range was 168 to 210 months, with a 60--month statutory minimum. After consideration of the 18 U.S.C. § 3553 factors, including the need for the sentence imposed to reflect the seriousness of the offense and to promote respect for the law, this Court sentenced Jackson to a period of 120 months imprisonment followed by four years of supervised release - a non-guideline sentence that was 48 months below the minimum guidelines range.

Effective November 1, 2011, the United States Sentencing Commission ("Sentencing Commission") approved part A of Amendment 750, which altered the offense levels in § 2D1.1 of the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines Manual ("U.S.S.G." or "Guidelines Manual") applicable to crack cocaine offenses (the "Guidelines Amendment"). See U.S.S.G. §2D1.1 (2011). In addition, the Sentencing Commission gave this amendment retroactive application. See U.S.S.G. § 1B1.10(c) (2011). Relying on the Guidelines Amendment, Jackson now seeks a reduction in his sentence.

The parties disagree as to whether Jackson is eligible for a sentence reduction. Jackson argues that although he "may have qualified as a career offender, his particular criminal history severely overepresented [sic] the seriousness of the offense and therefore did not warrant designation." (Mem. at 4.) In addition, Jackson devotes most of his motion to describe the commendable efforts he has made to rehabilitate himself while incarcerated, and he urges the Court to take that into consideration when determining the present motion. On the other hand, the Government contends that because Jackson was sentenced as a career offender pursuant to § 4B1.1, he is ineligible for a sentence reduction, regardless of his post-sentence conduct. Although Jackson's counsel was given permission to file a reply to the Government's response, after reviewing the sentencing transcript as well as other documents in the record, she determined not to file a reply.


A.Relevant Law

As a general rule, a federal court "may not modify a term of imprisonment once it has been imposed". 18 U.S.C. § 3582(c); Cortorreal v. United States, 486 F.3d 742, 744 (2d Cir. 2007). However, Congress has allowed an exception to that rule, providing in 18 U.S.C. § 3582(c)(2) that: in the case of a defendant who has been sentenced to a term of imprisonment based on a sentencing range that has subsequently been lowered by the Sentencing Commission pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 994(o), . . . the court may reduce the term of imprisonment, after considering the factors set forth in section 3553(a) to the extent that they are applicable, if such a reduction is consistent with applicable policy statements issued by the Sentencing Commission.

18 U.S.C. § 3582(c)(2). The policy statement governing § 3582(c) proceedings is located in § 1B1.10 of the Guidelines Manual, and, effective November 1, 2011, gives retroactive effect to the Guidelines Amendments. See § 1B1.10(c).

In Dillon v. United States, --U.S.--, 130 S. Ct. 2683, 177 L. Ed. 2d 271 (2010), the United States Supreme Court identified a two step-inquiry for courts to follow in adjudicating a motion for a sentence reduction pursuant to 18 U.S.C. § 3582(c). At the first step, a court must determine whether the defendant is eligible for a sentence reduction. Dillon, 130 S. Ct. at 2691. If, and only if, the court finds that the defendant is eligible for a sentence reduction under § 3582(c) and § 1B1.10, "then the second step of the analytical framework set forth in Dillon requires the district court 'to consider any applicable § 3553(a) factors and determine whether, in its discretion, the reduction authorized by reference to the policies relevant at step one is warranted in whole or in part under the particular circumstances of the case'". United States v. Mock, 612 F.3d 133, 137 (2d Cir. 2010) (quoting Dillon, 130 S. Ct. at 2692).

In order for a defendant to be eligible for a sentence reduction, the defendant's applicable guideline range must have been lowered by the Guidelines Amendment. See § 1B1.10(a)(1); see also United States v. Johnson, 633 F.3d 116, 117 (2d Cir. 2011). Whether a defendant's guideline range would be lowered under the Guidelines Amendment requires a court to "determine the amended guideline range that would have been applicable to the defendant if the [Guideline Amendment] had been in effect at the time the defendant was sentenced". § 1B1.10(b)(1). "In making such determination, the court shall substitute only the [Guideline Amendment] for the corresponding guideline provisions that were applied when the defendant was sentenced and shall leave all other guideline application decisions unaffected." Id. Application Note 1 to § 1B1.10 further clarifies that the applicable guideline range referenced in § 1B1.10 is "the guideline ...

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